Report of Jonestown Agriculture & Livestock Committee, Feb 14, 1978

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AGRICULTURE & LIVESTOCK COMMISSION

Minutes of February 14, 1978

Secretary: tl [Tish Leroy]

Analysts present: Jim Morral [Jim Bogue], Russel Moton, Jan Wilsey, Jack Barron, Gene Chaikin, James Simpson, Philip Blakey, Guy Mitchell and Rob Gieg.

Chairperson for the meeting: Jack Barron

Follow-up:

Insecticide barrel – Tommy repaired and sealed the banana oil barrel.

Dogs to fields – Jan’s crew took some dogs to fields; Learning is taking one or two; Chaikin has adopted a dog and giving it time. Others still need to give more attention.

Map Numbering Fields – Started at Analysts meeting Sunday night. Initial work is done.

Grenadilla vs Pumpkin – Jack says the nutrients in pulp are approximately the same, and seeds in both can be eaten. Pumpkin seeds are perhaps a little more valuable, being approximately 50% oil and 30% protein, and being a strong deterrent to certain parasites, according to Dr. Schacht. We have enough ground so are planting both. The seeds of grenadilla have a few more uses.

Project-wood – H.S. is to start a project searching for wood we can use for our sawmill operations.

Livestock – Jim Morrel reported: pushing the well, we are in a time of long dry and this is important to the stock. Jan’s crew getting the poles; 100 along road and they have more in the bush. Have enough for what is scheduled. Must dig well deeper, also.

Chickenry – 37 died out of 584; they had broken tongues from being pipped and starved to death. JJ said no more pipping.

Dr. Fernans said if using commercial feed, use only the egg ration, it contains shell, and all needed. 18 mo is end of prime laying age; chickens start laying at 6 mo; after 12 mo of laying, they are past their prime. Should go in pot them.

Need more air circulation in pens; slight modifications will accomplish this. Need to build up a supply of layers. Can purchase layer chicks; roosters are tearing up the hens – remove some of them. 19 hens and 75 babes; not been sexed yet. Rob plans to divide pens to upper and lower. Have broilers for sale every 3 weeks with no additional pens.

Not counting the pullets, we have total of 395 hens and 46 roosters. The pullets are hens that have not yet begun laying. Of the pullets, we have 90 that are sexed, and additional 75 chicks that we have not yet sexed.

Again, by dividing each pen in half, and then each side into an upper and lower cage, we could use this for incoming chicks; we would have broilers for [last line cut off]

 

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Ag & Lives

14 Feb 78

This would leave one pen for storage – a workshop. Also, this is leaving coups [coops] #1, 2, 3 and 4 for our own laying hens. The framework would be built out of poles; we would need chicken wire and a small amount of lumber for flooring in the small second-level cages. ON SATURDAY, I WILL HAVE A COST ESTIMATE PREPARED.

This week we screened in the isolation coups and built a partition in coup #1 to separate the Jonestown chicks from the pullets because they were not able to get to the feed and water.

We screened the chickens away from rodents this week and separated out the very young ones.

Egg production was down today, partially due to pipping.

Dr. Fernans said his Dad has a chicken farm; they don’t pip. They have great success. PIPS ARE A DEFICIENCY, AND DR. FERNANS WILL RESEARCH IT FOR US.

Egg count: 12th, 239; 13th, 176; 14th, 228.

643, usually get this much in 2 days.

Larry commented Fernans said pip is an amino acid deficiency re the corn; will research it.

Marshall Farris asked about the molting season.

Our chicks are hybrids; 9 weeks are ready for market. Mixture of 4 different kinds, bred for production & fast growth

Sm [small] Animals – Chris said [they] have now spaed [spayed] 8 dogs; 2 more by the vet that came out. Had a litter of 3 bunnies. Mated another rabbit yesterday; has 28-30 day cycle.

Russell – Doing soil analysis of newly cleared fields this week. Becky Flowers is working with me, and has made helpful suggestions already.

Guest told us to contact another since Mon Rapo didn’t have the pertinent information, will be contacting them.

Dr. Fernans said in order to make decision on cutlass bean protein, we needed to find out the amino acid contact which Mon Rapo cannot do; will have to get done in Trinidad.

Insecticides – Ernestine [Blair] reported Dr. Fernans said dry is ideal time to fight flies; in China they keep at it and break the cycle of maggots. Any wet places should be watched.

2/12 Marie Rankin sprayed around 15 houses; in windrow for mosquitoes and also sprayed for maggots. Sprayed toilets for flies.

Bob Davis sprayed all the peanuts for Jack Barron, 5 tanks. Cannot give price because have not received it from Georgetown.

Field & Rice – 12th All Crews, I, II, III and IV plus learning crew cutting second growth down behind chicken house.

 

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Ag & Lives

14 Feb 78

13th All Crews, I, II, III and IV Completed cutting of the 10 acres of 2nd growth behind chicken houses in the 1st 3 hrs of day. Helped with maintenance around piggery; helped with digging of well; cut poles for well in the bush, going up to the head of road; about 70 poles cut.

14th All Crews, I, II, III and IV Helping with the maintenance at piggery; Cut poles for well in the bush going out to the head of the road. Total 1200 poles plus, carried poles out of bush to path. The poles weigh 150# or more.

Sr. [Senior] Garden Report – Dorm 4 is growing: black-eyed peas; cutlass beans; pumpkins; corn; 7 banana trees; and sweet potatoes, by Leola Morehead.

Dorm 5, by Vallerstean Jones: 6 rows of cutlass beans; 13 rows cutlass beans; 11 rows cutlass beans (30 total). 3 rows peanuts by Frances Stevenson; 1 row pumpkin, Lucy Miller; 1 row collards; 1 row garlic; 12 rows okra; 3 rows peas; 2 rows of corn by Lula Ruben; 14 black-eyed peas; 2 rows collards; 1 garlic & onions; 8 pineapple; 7 banana trees; 10 rows sweet potatoes; 3 pineapple; 1 row of beans; 3 banana trees; Artie Harper.

Amanda Fair & Claude Goodspeed: Dorm 3 have 4 rows bora beans; 3 rows sweet potatoes; 2 rows peanuts; 4 hills pumpkins; 1 row onions; 8 banana trees

By Hazel Hown [Towne] and Darlene Watkins: 9 rows cutlass beans; 5 rows squash; 5 rows pumpkin; 5 rows okra; 4 rows black-eyed peas; 1 row of onions.

Mary Bailey: 1 row of edoes [eddoes];

Helen Snell Dorm 2 has 4 rows corn; peanuts between corn and okra. Gladys Jackson: 2 rows peanuts, 1 row okra, 2 rows brown beans Dorm 2.

Louella Brown dorm 2: Pineapple, 12 banana trees, 2 rows collards; 4 rows garlic; 2 rows beans; 3 rows tomatoes; 6 bayberry trees.

Ruth Atkins C-7: 8 rows pumpkin, 4 rows eddoes,

Geneva Beal: 2 rows of corn, cutlass beans, 15 rows of corn, black-eyed peas between corn, 5 rows pinto beans, 1 row of white beans.

Garden crew – Picked 257# greens; 149# radishes, 20# okra, 5# celery. Weeded 475 feet in West Garden. Watered daily. Picked also 201# squash, 40# Bora beans.. Planted 1 1/3 row shallots 175’ long; replanted 18 beds watermelon, replanted 10 beds pumpkin, replanted 4 rows radishes 275’; 1 row tropical vegetable 175 ft. Helped Laura’s crew in Cutlass bean field. Some of garden crew helped clean fish. Weeded 475 ft in West garden; set out stakes on 2 pumpkin rows 550 ft long.

 

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14 Feb

Citrus & Nursery – Becky Flowers

Water wing beans and citrus trees in cottage area; Bait 2 acoushi ant nests; maintenance work in the sawmill citrus trees; stake trees in section 7 along the road; burn wood in new planting area; help with watering the garden; completed section 8 spraying, cultivating and fertilizing.

Maintenance in nursery; bagged 45 fruit trees; planted 5 trays of fruit trees seeds.

Made 1 ton of potting soil.

Gene located some trees that can be used for lumber in our construction.

Bananas – Lee asked if we are getting enough planting material? Had heard we are not. Danny said 193 suckers additional in the propagation field; 1 field has 100 suckers; 2 smaller fields of cayenne with 35 each and mixed with plantain; fig and dwarf.

Gene is concerned with priorities of crew. In propagation field, about 330, will increase 2 to 1, so whole only increases 1 1/2 acres per year. Not big production: 400 trees = 660 production so just over 1 1/2 acres per year.

Gene suggested system of taking the prime stalk, the med. and follower – 3 in all, a common system. Otherwise a lot of stake to be put up as weakens the plant structure and pulls down in wind. Could pull suckers from bigger cayenne field. Gene estimates that in 1 banana field above the garden we have in excess of 1000 suckers currently. Gene advises to cut them out and plant them as soon as possible. Would rather see us use our own material rather than bring in any disease from the fields downriver.

Danny says 2-3 suckers a year; reaped 3-4 times he knows of in some trees. Don also thinks production more than 2-3 times a year.

Gene said field of propagation should be expanded.

Dan: Do we have enuf cayenne suckers right now? Considering to plant whole thing or split corn?

Jeff said 20 per year, must cut back central stock at least once a week.

MARKETING INFORMATION NEEDED. Patty said private buyers do not buy bananas, govt is only one outside Georgetown that buys them. CHECK WITH GUYANA MARKETING CORPORATION (JON LAMBERT) RE THIS AND SELL TO GOVERNMENT OR GEORGETOWN OURSELVES. Danny is to meet with Jeff re the “ringing” of the suckers.

Inventory – JAN ASKED FOR AN INVENTORY OF THE CAYENNE ON WHOLE FARM. How long since he has done it? – Never – and when will it be done? – Said Saturday next meeting.

Jeff mentioned Loketon Cayenne, disease-resistant and high yield – an East Indian guy had and offered it to us. Had to leave. Working with chickens at time

 

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Ag & Lives

14 Feb 78

Man is in B.A.I.

Gene declared not worried about disease if within 20 mi from Kaituma, but concerned beyond that. Pomoroon is where large plantations are – much disease. Not mind gong to Arcaca for planting material.

Theresa [King] mentioned that in large commercial farms they kill suckers; their bunches are 50-100#; Dan said total # pounds on pruned trees is very slight margin – ultimately nearly the same # of pounds per year.

Gene: let’s split them up as fast as we can to have more that way. Jan suggested trying different way than propping. Danny said he still has to get with Charlie and get the wire ordered.

1. FERNANS SAID WE ARE THE PUREST SOCIALIST COMMUNITY IN THE WORLD. THOUGHT WE WOULD HAVE TO USE STRONGER METHODS. SURPRISED TO BE WITHOUT VIOLENCE.

Grubb Rehabil proj – Charlie said located wood can be used at old sawmill site. JJ said priority! Must rehabilitate them.

Plantain – Ellen commented we should grow more Plantain now that we have learned to make the flour; we can be more self-sufficient and less dependent on wheat flour.

Danny said a lot of Plantain – have over 750 trees now that will be ready around summer.

Gene said in windrows, old state farm used to have some; go to Ramniryan and ask to take out the Plantain. MAKE IT PRIORITY NEXT ONE GOING TO TOWN. Russell do.

Darrell: a stove and grill was proposed: see attached special report on this.

Gene suggested skillets used in oven what we bake our bread; it was said we could use cast iron to make a grill – if someone would produce some cast iron then would not have the warping. Tom said he could construct veins in bottom of skillet and increase in production. Charlie said that grill plate is special and nonporous and very smooth, normal steel might not work as grill plate. Many are now made of stainless steel. Tom said stainless won’t work. No way of bonding 2 together. Ernestine is in favor of cast iron.

Anita: Were sugar plantations in Georgetown; see if can get cast-iron utensil from old plantation; cast iron factory in gtn [Georgetown]. Make special order. See what can be found in this area.

REV. It is called grill because it is nonporous. Grill steel should be used.

Windmill – see attached report. JJ said if there is merit to the proposal, it should be done. Was referred to Steering committee.

Jack Barron Rpt – peanut and sorrell – I put on bucket of tsp for peanuts; no tractor or trailer service has kept us away from the peanuts and sorrel. We have some

 

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Ag & Livestock

14 Feb 78

sorrel plants 1 foot-high waiting for some good rain to transplant. Peanuts were sprayed – 25 gallons.

Brick – We have 14 bricks formed for drying. The 5 bricks which came out of the fire this morning were of good quality. The good quality were made with 100% clay. One all white and one 50% white and 50% red clay. These two types will be used for immediate production. A 300# test was made on the 100% white clay brick.

Must slow the preliminary drying process. Pat Grunnet advised as to how they did it where she was in Africa.

Jack says takes about 2 weeks; dry 7 days; heat up 7 days and cool off 7 days. Jeff said the white Kalamite mine in Brazil is big $$ in Brazil. Might be worth mining as it is a source of industrial income.

Firebrick and ceramics just like steel can be made from it, and can do more with it. Ludwig in Brazil made a fortune with it. CHECK IN MINING JOURNALS IN THE STATES and have them check it out and get the information.

Science class questions:

1) Area behind old sawmill should be plowed up; ALREADY DONE.

2) Soccer field – Mike will plow it in couple days; will do adjacent field at same time.

3) Bush cabbage-heart of Palm– Takes 10 years to first harvest

4) Jackpath to Lynetta Lane? 1st period science class volunteered to take it on.

5) Students can take notes only if for science – Ushers to watch!

Dr. Ferrans [Fernands] (said JJ) told us he never saw leadership participate like it does here! Even Guyana has it over Cuba with no pomp and ceremony used in other socialist parts of the world.

Incubator – JJ said Dr. Fernans said we need 200 egg incubator. Get the roosters out. Most of our hens seem too old. Roof should go way out, lot of circulation.

TELL GEORGETOWN TO GO OVER TO DR. FERNANDS AND STAY THERE COUPLE DAYS AND LEARN ALL THEY CAN ABOUT THE CHICKENS.

Julie was down there when chicks came in; Julie and Florine Douglas were down there day baby chicks were pIpped… TABLE IT… JJ WANTS TO KNOW 47 X $13.

Dr. Fernans said use Pupane if worms; takes care of them all.

JJ: WHEN SLAUGHTERING, CHECK AND SEE IF ANY WORMS. WAS IN HIS CRAW. CHECK NEXT FEW CHICKENS.

Newcastle – a virus that runs rapidly thru flock; 1 year cycle on layers; suggests we use live vaccine. Is worldwide disease, as wiped out most of chickens in No. America.

Feed: Said Cassava okay for bulk in the feed – but need to add concentrates of vitamins and minerals. Buy in concentrated form. Add churn minerals. Showed how to figure for balance. Chip and dry overnight; soak it; no cyanide to bother us – said cheaper in long run.

 

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Ag & Livestock

14 Feb 78

Research our access to the vitamins and mineral concentrates, said JJ.

ANYONE WHO CAN’T PASS 50% of questions will be eligible for learning.

Pig feed: Dr. F. said #104, for pigs, can be eaten by cattle; the #105 churn minerals for cattle cannot be eaten by pigs because they do not have enough stomachs to digest the added fiber that is put in cattle feed.

Space: Figure 1 sq. ft. per bird: 500 chickens: 500 sq. ft.

Contamination: Jim Morrell chickens at piggery okay, but should not be overdone. As long as on oppo side, can have germs passed: can carry manure from one place to other on feet – transmits all sorts of parasites and disease. Cocksiliosis can be passed to hogs.

Charlie mentioned small birds cannot stand drafts. JJ SAID POSSIBLY ASKED DR. FERNANS TO DINNER AT HOUSE IN GTN [Georgetown].

Keeping time now for wage figures. JJ wants costs figured.

Fernans remembers when Joyce was only female here.

Land clear: Biggest problem is portion that appears from the road. Should be cleared. Is an eyesore.

Dr. Fernans said Guyanese were not willing to endure the hardships.

J says they may need tight controls and regimentation to get it done in Guyana. Discipline; in Cuba they do not fool around. REMIND JJ TO TELL WHAT HE HEARD. He mentioned Jagan’s name.

Dad’s motto: From each according to his ability; to each according to his need.

Cuba motto is: FROM EACH ACCORDING TO VISIBILITY: TO EACH ACCORDING TO HIS “WORK.”

Dr. Fernans said Seniors should work and be productive

New area: Mike mentioned area by new toilet; storage area for wood; remove scrap wood and plow. JJ agreed.

Herbs: Freezedry [Kivin Earl Smith] was confronted on his irresponsibility; Shirley Fields was placed in charge of herbs, and Fannie Jordan and others can help her. Some of the seniors might help, Dad said.

See PEOPLES RALLY MINUTES FOR BALANCE OF MEETING…

Vernetta takes minutes on the Rally subjects.

Special report attached.

 

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14 Feb 78

Cassava Mill: No longer in operation as of this date

TRACTOR: 12th Disked 2 areas on road for cassava; quit at 1 PM to go unload the boat.

13th Unloaded boat

14th Rotovated peanuts in field 6; rotovated 6 beds in West Garden.

CASSAVA CREW: 12th Planted 8 sections at corner of road on the left-hand side; we weeded papaya trees at back of same field.

13th Went down road 1/2 mi past piggery to do maint. work. Weeded 95 rows on the rt hand side of road, and 23 rows on left side. There was 1 bag cassava bagged and delivered to the mill. Mary Wotherspoon will be checking with me daily in reference to needing more cassava for cookies or cereal.

14th Weeded first couple field around bend; 223 rows on the right-hand side and 198 on left. We went down road about 11:30 AM the plant cassava in field past mill on left-hand side. Completed 19 1/2 sections.

Took survey for discolored leaves in fields that are planted all the way down the road to banana trees. Problem in first area on rt side; survey was turned over to Russell.

 

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14 Feb 78

SMOKEHOUSE EXPERIMENT – Don Fitch

With collected ideas from personal experience, advice and pictures of smoke houses, we have come up with a pretty reliable, easy to operate meat smoker. The method we use can be utilized with many variations of bigger scale and design.

Our smoker was made from an old refrigerator, with a half barrel used as a stove and a pipe connecting the two things learned from this test are:

1) our stove produced many times more smoke then we needed so the same sized stove can be used on a much larger walk-in type.

2) Fish should have skin left on for better results;

3) Fillet of fish should be oiled or have skin to keep from sticking, while fish steaks have no problem about sticking to the racks.

4) Top of box cooks faster even though heat comes from bottom.

5) Banana leaves make good smoke. Locust bark after used up as tea are also good. Some of the woods work well too.

6) I think twin smoke houses could be built. One for the curing process, and the other for storage with very, very cool smoke. Details can be worked out.

I am sure Gene has made his own discoveries along with everybody else’s ideas; I think we can come up with the perfect meat curing process.

PS MAYBE DRIED BANANAS, OR SWEET POTATOES OR ANYTHING CAN BE TRIED…

GRENADILLA: Chemical analysis –

The flesh 93.7% water, 0.7% protein; 0.2% fat; Carbohydrate 4.3%; fiber 0.7%;; ash 0.4% The seeds and aril (seed covering) have about 17.6% carbohydrate.

Uses: The flesh and pulp of the fruit are edible and are eaten alone or in fruit salads. They are also used to flavor ice cream and sherbets to make a cooling drink and jam. The tuberous root is usually regarded as poisonous, although they are said to be eaten in Jamaica as substitute for yams

PUMPKIN: Chemical analysis –

The edible portion, about 70% in mature fruits, has the following approximate composition: water 90%; protein 1%; fat 0.2%; carbohydrates 8%; fiber 0.5%; The immature fruits contain more water and less nutrients, but have less waste. The seed kernels contain 40-50% oil and 30% protein. Largely used in pies and sandwiches.

FACTORS… Grenadilla has more variety of uses; pumpkins can be grown in the field; grenadilla has to be grown in an area by itself. We can grow both, and pumpkins can be and are in the rows and fields now. Grenadilla should be grown in both windrows. Pumpkin can be grown in the triangle between the windrows in the present garden area behind Dorm 5, 1/2 acre; after pushed out.

 

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14 Feb 78

Grenadilla bears continuously.

Pumpkin has to be replanted twice a year.

Grenadilla does not need to be fertilized or given special care, or sprayed. A wild fruit in area.

WINDMILL:

Dad (from Peter Wotherspoon) – in Jtn [Jonestown] we don’t have consistently high winds that would make wind a good source of power, but I think the tradewinds might still be harvested to obtain useful work.

I propose we build a windmill with collapsible vanes to avoid high wind damage. A small windmill such as Midwestern farmers construct on a tower, could be geared or adapted to pump water, mill cassava flour, run a small charging generator or turn a fan for drying. The tower could be constructed in such a way as to provide a high lookout post for security with field glasses. Perhaps wind power might be adapted for irrigation during the dry spell.

LARGE GRILL OR SKILLET: A large skillet, metal exposed to uneven heating over a long period of time. Such as occurs with our present wood fire and stoves, tends to sag and dent and does not lend itself to the even distribution of oil as is needed for a skillet.

Solution: A SEPARATE sheet of metal, crimped on the edges to keep oil from running off could have handles welded on the edges for easy removal and carrying. The skillet would cover the whole top of the regular stove, laying on top and acquiring heat by transfer. It would only be exposed to heat while the actual cooking is being done; so it would not be weakened as the regular stove tops are. Also, removal would make it easier to clean.

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AGENDA

AGRICULTURE & LIVESTOCK COMMISSION

and

PEOPLES RALLY

Saturday 18 Feb 78

Chairperson: Guy Mitchell, analyst

1) Follow-up & Announcements

2) Fields & Rice – Jan Wilsey

3) Gardens – Simpson & Shirley S. [Smith]

Water pump for Agric previously approved. What happened?

4) Senior Gardens – Selika B. [Bordenave]

5) Cassava – Marguerita Romano

6) Citrus & Nursery – Becky Flowers and Gene Chaikin

7) Bananas – Danny Kutulas

8) Peanuts and Sorrel – Jack B. [Barron]

9) Tractors – Philip Blakey

10) Land Clearing – Mike Touchette

11) Herbal Gardens – Shirley Fields and Fannie Jordan

12) Cattle, Pigs & Horses – Guy Mitchell

13) Chickenry – Rob Gieg

14) Small Animals – Chris Tally

15) Cassava Mill or Cane Grinding – Mary W. [Wotherspoon]

16) Agronomy & Composting – Russell [Moton]

17) Insecticide Usage – Ernestine Blaire [Blair]

Originally posted on March 4th, 2022.

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