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(Note: This tape was transcribed by Katherine Hill. The editors gratefully acknowledge her invaluable assistance.)
Jones: Sunday news. Political rivalbry– rivalry set in the Caribbean. Political diversions and interest black rivalries are currently casting a question mark on the future of the CARICOM, the Caribbean economic community, the political and economic grouping of the Westerly Indies. To many outsiders, the former British colonies in the West Indies are a happy homo– homogenous– homogenous– homogenous grouping exemplified by the tourist posters with their trees, sandy beaches, and steel bands. And there’re always a– been always a rivalry between the large islands, particularly Jamaica and Trinidad, while the (unintelligible word) islands are often in dominance of these islands. Now Jamaica and Guyana have governments which are leaning, increasingly, towards socialist doctrines, while oil-rich Trinidad is wooing the smaller islands down a more capitalis– capitalistic path. In addition, many neighboring Venezuelan South Ameri– and South American rather than CARICOM.
In recent weeks, officials from Trinidad and Barbados have held high-level talks with a view to drawing up new bilateral mutual agreements on oil, fishery and agricultural and tourism. Though both sides are at pains to defy this, such agreements would further undermine more general CARICOM projects. Trinidad uh– Trinidad– Trinidad, which produces some of its oil but more importantly refines much of Venezuela’s, has also been advancing aid from loans to some of the neighboring Windward Islands and S– Saint Louis and Saint– and Saint Vincent, for example. At present these islands and An– and I– Antigua, and possibly Dominica, among the Leeward Islands, claim further chain – a chain further to the North – appear to be siding with Trinidad, though not– though some Caribbean leaders are on the fence, sitting literally on the fence, un– under the– until the outcome of the power struggle becomes clear. (Pause) (unintelligible word) mean the struggle for socialism or capitalism in the area.
Meanwhile, Trinidad ends– those from Trinidad, where you landed just before you came to Guyana, businesses are becoming successfully, increasingly vocifer– vociferous – that means “outspoken”– in calling for Trinidad to align itself closely and strongly with Venezuela, a fishing nat– uh, nation– a fishing uh, agreement concluded between the two neighbors several months ago and has opened up one area to cooperation. This is suspected to be retaliation because the Soviets have opened their fishery alli– alliance to the Soviet Union, East Germany, and Democratic Peoples Republic of the Warsaw Treaty and uh, the– the Chinese. Businessmen feelings were summed up recently by opposition leader Basa– Basdeo Panday, head of the United Labor Fort [“Force”], a probation of large and expanded market has had a serious restraint on the economic expansion of I– uh, Trinidad and Tobi– Tobago, and he told a special party congress recently, “We must now seriously consider the feasibility of turning to South America as an answer for our products, as we are being driven out of Africa and other areas that we have exploited.”
One of the problems facing most of the islands is growing realization that tourism may not be the best avenue of development, and that the dramatic growth in tourism in recent years has brought headaches along with much-needed revenue. A Pan-Caribbean conference on tourism held in Puerto Rico in May urged the Caribbean islands to set a ceiling on the influx of tourists. A study on the social impact of tourism in Grenada, Barbados, the U– Unies– U.S. Virgin Islands, and the Cayman Islands, among other spots, showed that the excessive influx could overpower the host population and destroy the community.
I hope they never destroy that beautiful island of Grenada. I’m glad that they’re one– (Stumbles over words) you have never seen that beautiful paradise, when we get our boats sometime, we’ll just go down and let you see it for yourself, as time goes on.
Barbados has become a leading target for North American and European jet-setters, yet the price en– enact– exacted may be seen in the (unintelligible word) beach-front ho– luxury hotels, fast food chains, discos, and other paraphernalia which are apparent prerequisites for many tourists. None of these islands – Barbados, or any of them – compare to Grenada. It has very few people on it, and the beaches are (pause) as clean and as long as the eye can see. (Pause)
Trade missions from Barbados have been touring Trinidad, Venezuela, and Martinique, and Guadalupe– the couple– uh, this last couple of months, in an attempt to diversify the land’s income. Now there are signs in the U.S. is beginning to take more interest in the development of the Caribbean. I can’t read my own notes– that’s my problem, I’ve given you the essence of it. State Department has been alarmed in Marxist tendencies– about Marxist tendencies and growing Cuban influence in the form of technical advisors, engineering– (pause) engineering an– and so on, in Jamaica and Guyana. And CIA destabilization techniques were J– alleged during the 1976 Jamaican elections which re-elected Michael Manley. However, the Guyanese government has been more sensible, in that it has one strong party, it maintains that mass party, even if it does use questionable means of a referendum. However, Wa– Washington is trying to normalize ties with Jamaica and Guyana, which would double its aid to the Caribbean in the next few years, and is currently trying to remove some of the suspicions caused by the past U.S. polisicy– policies in the area, but it will take a long time to heal the wounds, particularly in Guyana, where 13 of their interior doctors were blown up by the CIA in a Cuban– Cubana Airlines, I was meant to be on, just about two years ago, I think it was – two years ago or three years ago, is it? – t– two years ago at this time, in the fall.
Reliable Egyptian socialists indicated today that Egypt condemned the recent raids by Rhodesian forces in Zambia and Mozambique. The same sources said that Egypt calls on the international community to double its efforts to bring the racist regimes to respect the rights of Africans. They said Egypt also calls on intervention– on uh, a national intervention to support the Zimbabwean Liberation Front. This brought a red face to Washington who thought they had Israel comfortably– I mean, Egypt comfortably in their pocket.
A new m– multilateral– multiracial party, headed by a former colleague of Prime Minister Ian Smith and opposing his transitional government, has been formed in Rhodesia. This is according to the Sunday paper, published in Salisbury. The newspaper said the party – the National Alliance – is led by Dr. Colin Barlow, former a member– permanent member of Smith’s Rhodesian Front Party. There is also included the Zimbabwean People’s Party and United People’s Association. What difference he will make is unknown at this time, but it is a representative uh, white opposition to the terrorist policies of the regime of Ian Smith that has been upheld with the ban lifted on economic aid, military aid, from the U.S. Congress.
The president of Tanzania, Julius Nyerere, said in a television interview that Zambia’s decision to reopen its borders with Rhodesia was difficult to understand and was causing problems in reserve– in reverse in relations between the two countries. The interview, broadcast over Norwegian television, was recorded in the capital of the Tanzanian (unintelligible) four days ago. President Nyerere, who is one of the dearest friends of our own beloved prime minister, prime minister Forbes Burnham, said that there were many elements in this present situation in southern Africa which he did not understand, and one of them was Zambia’s decision to open its borders with Rhodesia. He said the Chinese-built railway link between Zambia and Tanzania was built for the purpose of preventing Zambia from being blackmailed by the Rhodesian Prime Minister, Ian Smith, and the purposes of s– aid from the Soviet Union, as they’re not aligned as this country here also must be– are non-aligned, he said the millions of dollars of military equipment given to us by the Soviet Union was not given to allow one m– member state to allow aggression of Ian Smith across their borders and bomb innocent civ– citizens, men, women, and children, the old, the young.
West Germany’s main Federation of Protestant Churches will remain in the World Council of Churches, although it opposes Council aid to certain African liberation movements. Uh, Wor– World Council of Churches wrote us a very nice letter in their One– in the World Call, and we should, Dr. [Richard] Tropp, get on with responding to them in a very, very warm way, because they’re having trouble with some of their own member nations. Because they chose to follow their conscience, they give a few thousand dollars of aid to the SWAPO and Zimbabwe Patriotic Front. (Pause) Uh, but anyway, they remain in the World Council of Churches for the time, although it opposes Council’s aid to certain African liberation movements. An official communiqué said today in Hanover, West Germany that Con– Council of the (stumbles over words) Evangelistic Church, whose members include most of West Germany’s 26 million Protestants and issued a communiqué after a two-day meeting, called to discuss membership in the world organization.
The President of Nigeria [likely Olusegun Obasanjo] will remain– will arrive in Khartoum tomorrow for a three-day visit– official visit, too. Official talks between the uh, Sudanese president [Gaafar Muhammad Nimeiry] and the Nigerian leaders will start tomorrow evening, and it will be allow– followed by a banquet. It’s felt there will be much discussion on how to stop the aggression in Somalia against the Ethiopians, which are allies of the Soviet Union.
Peoples Free Cuba, the only Communist territory in the Caribbean, has a large military and medical assistance program underway in Africa.
Black nationalist guerilla leader Joshua Nkomo told newsmen that the Rhodesians’ claim of killing only [over] 3500 guerillas in Zambia is false. Rhodesia’s forces did kill more than 100 armed guerillas, they said. The– the guerillas were in the camps in Zambia to be trained as drivers, police officers said– police officers and social workers stated this to be a fact. Zambian troops are fighting against Rhodesian troops since the attacks, which was launched two days ago in a row, by the Rhodesian white army. Joshua Nkomo, as you know, is the nationalist leader, and his ally Robert Mugabe, Marxist-Leninist leader, joined together in making the Zimbabwean Patriotic Front that represent ninety-seven percent of the territory of Z– what the white men call Ian Smith’s regime, or Rhodesia, and all the people who have been emancitated– emancipated, refer to as Zimbabwe.
Somalia’s president Mohammed un– en– Barre [Mohammed Siad Barre] pardoned almost 300,000 prisoners– prisoners in honor of the ninth anniversary of his military rule. This is a great move to try to show that they are liberalizing, because many of you are attacking China for being behind them, with their attitudes and treatment of people on the domestic scene. S– A Somalian republic official said the pardon would intervene– involve persons arrested on a number of charges, but the announcement did not say it would affect all– almost 10 Somalian soldiers arrested just last week on mili– for– for– on charges of trying to overthrow the president. (Pause)
Continuing with the news. (Pause). There’s always a great deal in the news that can stimulate our minds, and we should keep our minds stimulated at all times. You can never have enough knowledge. It’s impossible. Never can there be enough knowledge for us to retain in our minds. There’s always much more that we should know.
Military S– uh, CLC– C in– investigation. Atlanta-based Southern Christian Leadership Conference, headed by Ralph Abernathy, Reverend Ralph Abernathy, by the way is coming to visit us very shortly. SCLC– he was the closest friend of Dr. [Martin Luther] King when he was alive– has announced that it will launch an investigation of racism in the military and the (unintelligible) of the Uyin– United States government by holding hearings at several military bases. They may do it, but if it gets too hot, [President Jimmy] Carter will just step forward with martial law – like happened in the Philippines – martial law and all these nations, and they want to go to a dictatorial position. We are increasingly alarmed at the members of com– number of complaints that we have been receiving from black servicemen, said president Joseph Lowery of the Chr– Southern Christian Leadership Conference, and are harly– highly critical of the disproportionate members [numbers] of dishonorable discharges they have been receiving. In the past three years, the organization has received 2500 complaints of military racism. Pl– Planes begin– p– plans to begin its hearings at Fort Stewart-Hunter near Savannah, Georgia, where it has received these 2500 hundred complaints, but it is not known whether there’ll be any federal inquiry. Of course not. Who cares about how many of our black people die?
Interesting happening in US scene, ATM [August 29th Movement] and IWK are uniting. Two dogma– dogmatic uh, Marxist-Leninist organizations, in the August 29th movement, I Wor Quen, Q-u-e-n, IWK, which was formerly a pro-Chinese and the other one was pro-Moscow, have merged to form the League of a Revolutionary Struggle, ML. The movement is largely seen as an intermediary step in the organization accuting– uniting with the Communist Party ML. Since May, ATM and IWK have joined with the CPML in the Committee to Unite in Marxist-Leninist because they feel that unless we drop our differences, we’re doomed for a worse dictatorship than Adolf Hitler’s Germany. (Stumbles over words) A committee to unite (pause) all Marxist-Leninists, the League states that it will continue to work in the committee as an effort to uh, forge a simple unified party and not just have intellectual snobs, in talking socialist rhetoric. Furthermore, in an article in the last– in the first issue of League’s monthly newspaper, according to the Washington Post, Unity– Unity, the party building new name, Unity, is put forward as the League’s main task. It had much harassment of late, and Internal Revenue are questioning their status, they were harassed by many agencies in New York. But they go on, apparently at this point, undaunted. ATM based mainly in the Chicago community but with a strong group in New York, and IWK, based in– based mainly in the Asian community, have been carrying out joint discussions for over a year and a half. The League, as did A– ATM and IWK, bases uh, its international outlook on the Three Worlds Theory as formulated by the current regime in China, though they interpret it different. The– the communist party uh, they will be uniting with– will be uh, the Soviets, but they do believe there is something in the doctrine of Three Worlds that can be seen that would be beneficial.
Racial harassment. Student sues for hoax. Char– Charlottesville, Virginia suit has dismiss– is dismissed yesterday in which Kendrick Easley attempted to sue Edward Wilcox [phonetic] for a racist prank. Easley charged that the joke drastically altered the course of his life. The hoax committed in February of ’77– that’s how long it took to come to trial– at the University of Virginia, where the two were students, involved fellow students who came to Easley’s dormitory window as he was studying at night and yelled “Psycho! Psycho!” In the aftermath of the incident Wilco [Wilcox] was admitted to forging– has admitted to forging a psychiatrist’s report of Easley– Easley, E-A-S-L-E-Y, which stated that Easley suffered from a hyperactivity dis– just a hyperactivity, an energy that kept him going at a fast pace and showed perspiration around the hairline and irregular eye movement, according to a courtroom testimony. The document was full of racial slurs, saying that all blacks suffer from uh, hypersensitivity, what they called uh, (pause) th– what they called was another term, I can’t remember– an animalistic type of emotion that could be provoked and enraged without any reason at all. Anyway, the cour– the court in Charlottesville upheld the young black man who had been harassed for days.
Philadelphia Police Department, in the wake of its dramatic brutal move– movement of “back to nature” group movement MOVE continues on to ramage– rampage against members of the black comp– community, as is being done in 81 other cities across the nation. In one instance, 26-year-old Bruce Green– Graham was beaten up by a top– cop who pounded him with the high-sided ni– it was a night stick– held in hand (pause) while attempting to drive in the p– police station with the only– uh, with the other. According to Graham, G-R-A-H-A-M, at one point the cop almost had an accident. Graham was under arrest, except (pause) he– he resisted and, of course, they’re charging him now for resistance of arrest, last week. For drunkenness he was charged, at their family disturbance, which prompted the mother to call the police. The cops came in the house several times to get him, but did each time– but each– each time, Graham studied [eluded] arrest. Imagine a mother of black family calling the police on any of their black relatives. Graham eluded arrest. When he was finally caught, one policeman said, “Graham, we ought to kick your ass, stomp on your balls (stumbles over words) for having to come out here (pause) all the time– all those times.” Graham, said the black weekly Philadelphia Tribune, s– said that he was called racist names and beaten and only on the way to the station, b– but– behind– not only on the way to the station, but behind the station and in his oil– in his own cell well– as well. I can’t read my own notes, hardly, today. They’re not– not very clear. Shortly afterwards, he was released with no charges against him. He was later admitted to a p– hospital where he was un– where he underwent abdominal surgery and stayed for a week. The brutally-beat victim says that he will press charges against the police department, ‘cause he will be unable to use one arm for the rest of his life.
In another case, charges against two black construction workers were dismissed last week following an earlier September incident in which several white Philadelphian cops attacked the two outside a police station without any reason. The men were laying– laying new cement and asked the cops not to walk on the fr– fresh pavement, but they were beat so severely that one of these lost their eye, but there was no review, no review given whatsoever.
Thirteen and a half years ago, Viola Liuzzo, a white civil rights worker, was viciously attacked by– to the death by Martin Luther King– (pause) when she was working for Martin Luther King, ‘cause she was beaten to death by the Ku Klux Klan. Two people spent six years each in jail for murder. Last week, no– a member of FBI was indicted for that murder. What will happen is another thing. Gary Thomas Rowe, formerly an– an undercover FBI agent, was charged at Lowndes County, Alabama, grand jury. You can imagine if they’ll go so far as to arrest some FBI, it doesn’t pay to be a part of that filthy, finky capitalistic system. And indeed if they were involved with the murder of this dear Italian lady, Viola Liuzzo, who was just in her late 20s or 30– early 30s, you know what they did with Dr. Martin Luther King. (Pause) (stumbles over words) Anyway, last week, a member of the FBI was indicted for that murder. Gary Thomas Rowe, who formerly was an undercover FBI agent, was charged in the Lowndes County, Alabama, grand jury. I want you to (stumbles over words) hear it again so that you can get it. Alabama has one of the best attorney generals [William (Bill) Baxley], who’s only going to be one time, but he does go after these people. He has been threatened some 37 times, his life has been threatened by people because he will come down on racism. It had to do with something – as I remember reading the book – on him having a black mammy in his home that was like his second mother. And he has a deep feeling for black people. The indictment comes after a series of revelations in recent months showing that Rowe– showing that Rowe not only spend– spied on the Klan for the FBI but actively irritated and participated in the Ku Klux Klan and other activities. These revelations have confirmed long-standing of– accusations by participation in the civil rights movement, and that the federal government and racist terrorists such as the Ku Ka– KKK members worked hand-in-hand with the federal government to threat anti-racist activities.
Yesterday an indictment paved the way for a new trial in the case. Don’t get your hopes too high, though. Most of these ca– cases are lost or thrown out of court. At the first trial, in which the blacks took part, Rowe testified against the three Klansmen who he said committed the murder. He accused Colin Leroy Wilkins of pulling the trigger, Eugene Thomas and Will– William Orville Eaton of being with Watkins [Wilkins]. Liuzzo was killed as she was driving from Selma, where she had taken some people who planned to march from– for the voter registration to Montgomery. The Klansmen charged her– chased her car down and fired from their own car as they passed her. I shall never forget that because I was in the– in that s– struggle myself. It was there that I al– when I got in one village trying to get a store, and getting some blacks to come North and sign some petitions, that they practically did me in, the police put alert out for me, and I didn’t get out any too soon.
In July, Thomas and Wilkins charged on a nationally-televised interview that Rowe actually pulled the trigger and that they had been afraid to name him as the killer because they had been told that it would mean heavier sentences for themselves. In fact, no one was convicted on murder charges as a result of the incident. Wilkins, Thomas, and Eaton were charged and convicted of conspiracy only. Eaton died before he could serve his time. It sounds to me like the attorney general of the state has already been removed or he sold out. He was one of the best at uh, of wh– white people, you can make any evaluation of, concern for black people’s problems. By student newspaper, Eaton and– before he could serve his term. It is rumored that the state police that were holding Eaton were guilty of his brutal killing and early death, because he had too much to say about the systematic killing– the killings of black activists and others in that troubled state. This is typical across of America. They first attack you by the press. If they cannot succeed there, they attack you in the news– the uh, by government agencies, and we’ve had all of those. Probably not through with them yet, because they’re always there, available to try to destroy you. And then, if they cannot get you there, they try assassination. We’ve already had all tried on us because every agency in the United States has tried to do something to our people and without success thu– thus far.
We should be a thankful people that we’ve arrived, free as we have, to enjoy this beautiful air and sunshine, clean foods with no chemicals in them, and as we move forward, we’ll be able to increase our budget. If everybody’ll work harder, we’ll be able to increase our budget. What we’ve got to have is workers, and we need people to volunteer time to Kay because everything that can be made to Kay– by Kay Nelson– in the way of dolls is that much more that we can sell– Patty [Cartmell] can sell, and Rheaviana [Beam], even at a higher price up the– up the river. Because she wanted just a sure thing – Kay wanted a sure thing – of getting these 33,000, but we can cut out the middle man and sell a lot of them up the river. So, please, uh, show interest, and I do love you very much. Beautify your surrounding areas. (pause) I– I love you.
You’ll be able to study the news under the library in– in the morning. And at noon, it’ll be piped out all over the area for you to hear it. In the evening, it’ll be under the pavilion. So you can be there, capturing the news. We have a Rex– Red Perreira, who’s in charge of all sports activities for Guyana, who’ll be here, so the basketball team should be in tip-top shape. The basketball team should do their very best to be in good shape. That will be the schedule. Then, after the– you’re on your full Russian classes and– uh, the news and then the Russian, switching in Spanish and Portuguese at time. Then we will bring them in for musical entertainment. So the schedule will be as usual. Musical entertainment will follow afterwards, at about 9:15, but you are to be there, and roll is to be taken. I can’t have anybody else. You are hurting me and crushing me to try to take advantage when you know it’s not right. You should do what everyone else does. So, that’s what I’ll have to have to see– to see people go. You’ll have to show interest in the classes that’re being given specifically for you. More than that, to show it in your conduct. It’s important to show socialism in your conduct, and your concern and your compassion and your controlled temperament. If there’s any kind of uh, temperamental outbreaks, I want to hear about it.
Remember again, first of the morning, news will be held under the library. You should go there to listen. You’ll hear it as you pass by. The second will be at no– lunch will be broadcast throughout the pavilion uh, and on all the PA systems. The third will be discussed, the whole total, with Patricia [Cartmell] and– and Tropp, who does a good job, he’ll write it up and discuss it piece by piece so you can get the news. Makes it ideal that way.
Be sure you get all your news down well and be fairly familiar with your Russian, ’cause it’s quite likely Tuesday you will have a test over Russian and also on current events. I urge them to follow-through, and they≠ they say that some of you are going to the head of the line in the kitchen and uh, finding out what the questions are and going back into their line. So– so tell Professor uh, r– as we call him, Reb Edwards [James Edwards] to avoid any of that happening, avoid any of that happening so that they cannot get by that way. Thank you very much, and much love.
End of tape
Tape originally posted June 2012