Q214 Transcript

Transcript prepared by Fielding M. McGehee III. If you use this material, please credit The Jonestown Institute. Thank you.

To read the Tape Summary, click here. Listen to MP3 (Pt. 1Pt. 2Pt. 3).
To return to the Tape Index, click here.

Jones: Attention. It’s seven o’clock, and the morning news for this Saturday. Remember the socialist classes will be held in the normal group arrangement for testing. You will be responsible for last evening’s synopsis of the news that I gave in rapid fashion, also the commentary on the direction of our Government of Guyana against corruption. We now have– the foreign news has it that there will be two cabinet ministers, Minister [George] King of Trade, Minister [Frank] Hope of Finance, who will be removed for corruption. So there’s certainly integrity on the behalf of our Prime Minister [Forbes Burnham]. Also be aware of the position papers of Guyana on imperialism and its support of the reunification of Korea under the Democratic Peoples Republic of North Korea, which is the only representative government of Korea. Moreover, be aware of the commentaries on South and North Korea and Mozambique.

Remember, we are not to make references to behavior in terms of capitalist or socialist. Do not categorize. Point out what is commendable about a child or an adult. Say you’re unselfish, or you’re selfish, but do not put a negative connotation on non-violent socialism. We will not be labeling ourselves. This is most important. We speak to each other in first names, we will give a peace salute. Remember quite well, we have all these years been non-violent and remain so. We have no weapons, (stumbles over words) needs to be reminded and instructed to our children. We do not believe in corporal punishment. Our town forum voluntarily agreed, even the families, that there would be no spanking, and we have had none, much less beatings. We disapprove of violence of any sort, and have none. If one were to be scuffling and fight, they have denial of privileges.

We must speak freely of the good foods. We had some delicious pumpkin, like a pie, yesterday in the evening for workers. This should be done for many. We have had such wonderful vegetables, fruits, and know them, so you can talk about the wonderful meats, the fish, the excellent fish, pork, the beef, the chicken. Meat at every meal, every day. Eggs and all the other wonderful things that we have.

We want to talk positively. I don’t want to hear anything about people saying they are unhappy, because we lose our protection that way, I can assure you. To those who talk about going to the States, you best not do so. I’m telling you so. We will be positive, about this place, how much we love it, how much we have found the cooperative life to our suiting, away from pollution, away from crime, muggings, violence, and just the general gang tensions and dope and racism of urban centers. We are not against the government of the United States, and we are not for any other government. We are a cooperative people who believe in living in the communal setting, sharing equally. No sexism, no ageism, no special privilege, and certainly no racism.

So all this, you must get down very carefully. People can marry who they choose, be engaged to whom they choose. You want to talk very positively about the excellent medical care we’ve had and do have, the best in the world. People can come and go freely. You have your passports, and that you certainly do. Anyone knows how many times people have traveled in alone, by plane, by boat, every week, by boat, how we take care of neighboring people, helping a child with a corneal transplant now, the number of lives we’ve saved of our outside neighbors.

We want to be sure that we are very, very positive. All the things that I mentioned last evening, we need to change our language now. Reinforce that. Obviously, we do not believe that I am a god. In that religious sense, we do not believe that. I’m just Jim, your good friend, your best friend, address me by the first name, and others the same way when we are visited by friends and guests, we’ll be having a number of distinguished guests.

Remember to have everything in preparation. We have to plan quickly because we’ll have some very important people in a few days, even within the week’s time. We’ve got to speed up the road, we have to plant the bananas around the vegetable area, any other eyesore, every place, everyone look. Fix up the inventory part where the shop used to be in between the warehouse and machine shop, and all that back wall needs to be fixed up. Everyone needs to look around for eyesores, correct them. Where the lightning miraculously struck the little windmill out by the residential restroom, that needs to be replaced, that should’ve struck– gone down and struck other people. Two of our young people have been struck, miraculously were spared, no harm.

We certainly believe in healing, but we do not believe in any way excluding medical science. We believe in verifying every healing that we’ve ever received. But our main purpose is to practice the humanism, the New Testament sharing, of the Judeo-Christian tradition, and all the world’s great religions. That’s the kind of conversation I want to hear out of our mouth. To be positive, to be smiling, to be friendly. We do not have any form of corporal punishment, obviously. We do not put people in boxes, obviously. We do not beat, we do not shave hair, we do not give red peppers, we do not do anything to a person but reason with them, deny privileges or encourage extra responsibilities when people are not living up to our standards. But fortunately, we very seldom have that. Very little anti-social behavior. No crime whatsoever, no theft, no violence, and we need to talk positively about this. I don’t want anything further said about going back. That we will take care of, in your time, when our people have our liberation, but in the meantime, no matter who comes, better be nothing but positive talk about how much you love it here and wouldn’t be anyplace else. If you had your right mind, you would never think of being anyplace but under the protection of your best friend.

Radio news, commentary on this Friday.

After a month and a half of the worst drought ever in Texas, within a matter of hours, 23 inches of rain had fallen, flash floods, 40 confirmed deaths in the last two days near the North Hubbard Creek bridge area, even nearly flooding out the cemetery and the graveyard of Lyndon Baines Johnson, former president. Most of the flooding has occurred near San Antonio, about 60 miles. However, floods are all over. Flood has become the next major cause of residential disaster. Two hundred have died thus far in floods this year.

Sixty miles south of Montreal, C– Canada a few hours ago, 40 young people were killed as a bus plunged off into a lake.

Nuclear missile military aircraft carrier has been placed in the Near East, based on what US State Department policy says, Vietnam is uh, causing a power vacuum in the Near East, where the USA moved out, and the USA must move back in on the flimsy basis, before Russia moves in and takes operation in that area, or has influence on Southeast Asia.

Unemployment rate increased one and a half percent this month already.

Secretary of State [Cyrus] Vance begin talks in Jerusalem today. Egypt unwilling to continue talks with [Menachim] Begin because they feel that he is intransigent and they feel that his mental balance is question. Of course, many people feel that a nuclear war is uh– an impen– impending days, or weeks even, because of the troubled Near East, and Africa and Southeast Asia.

Trans-Atlantic carriers are held up travel, they’re lying in the streets in the London airport due to airline strikes and then some purposeful sabotage of strikers in Paris.

In Italy, where we have seen much activity of the Red Brigade, who would be considered by the Eurocommunists terrorists. Marxist-Leninists believe in armed struggle. We will never use those titles for ourselves, because we are not able to categorize ourselves. We are our own unique kind of social cooperative life, communal life. We’re not pro-Soviet, we’re not pro-Chinese, and we’re not anti-US government. We prefer seeing [President Jimmy] Carterthan anyone else we know. There’s no one else in the background that looks good. [Ronald] Reagan is an extreme rightist and racist, and he is the most popular person running in the polls these days.

But in Italy, 8000 people were pardoned of crimes by the new Socialist president, some facing three-year sentences. All of these who have committed crimes in the last half year were given amnesty, total amnesty, reducing the prison population of Italy by one-sixth. It seems that there is some social democratic improvements, even in that capitalist state of Italy, where the Red Brigade kidnapped Aldo Moro, and the capitalists refused to exchange him for political prisoners. Those who are given– the 8000 who are given amnesty and going to be released in a matter of days, include no crimes of major violence or political corruption. Can you imagine United States freeing one-sixth of all of its prisoners in jails? Impossible. The Soviet Union does this every special day, May Day, Labor Day, and every October 17 cebe–­ celebrating the revolution in 1917, under [Vladimir] Lenin, when socialism first began in the world as a viable form in the government of the Soviet Union. But no such amnesty could ever be expected in the United States.

New York Times major correspondent Marvin [Myron] Farber will continue in jail, says the US Supreme Court. The New York Times will be fined five thousand dollars a day until he decides – and the publisher, and editor – to give over notes that the defense lawyers want in reference to the defense of a murderer, a doctor, who murdered five welfare patients by ucaré– by curaré, rather, being administered so that he could get the beds freed for rich paying guests. New York appellate judge upholds the ruling, and it appears the editor will be going to jail too. Marvin Farber’s already been in jail few weeks now, and he will be there until the completion of the case, which could technically be into the months or even years.

Boxcar crash, also in Canada, taking many lives.

Vance is to Middle– to visit the Middle East, to try to do something about that explosive warlike atmosphere.

Association of Southeast Asia is going to be formed with the USA on the pretext that the Vietnamese are trying to bring in Soviet influence.

Portugal President [Antonio Ramalho] Eanes has got the backing of the communists, the socialists, and all of the capitalist elements to agree that he will decide on who the next prime minister will be, who will be non-political in nature. Thus the government will go on in the present socialist form for the time being.

US refused USSR proposal. Soviet Union made another proposal to swap Sharasky– [Natan] Sharansky, the so-called dissident that USA human rights and Carter have been talking so much about, who the Soviets have convicted and have evidence provided, according to Voice of Radio Sweden, that he was giving secret government files to the CIA. But the USA refuses to trade him for a Soviet embassy official, attaché, in the USA who is held in prison. It seems that they want to make much public spotlight about Sharansky, but the USA does not care enough to exchange him for one Soviet prisoner that [is] held in US jails as a political prisoner.

Perhaps the most sensational crime of the last couple of decades has occurred in England. [Jeremy] Thorpe, who is the head of the Liberal Party, member of Parliament, would’ve been the Home Secretary in the Conservative government coalition, he could have been even prime minister. It’s a thunderstorm unprecedented. The mere existence of the case may well affect the polls and move them either to the right or the left. It is not yet known. It may certainly blight the campaign of the Liberal Party that is supported by The Manchester Guardian. The charge against uh, Thorpe is conspiracy to commit murder. All of the people involved in the conspiracy and the person murdered was not named. He had been in favor of abolition of the House of Lords, but now he is facing what could be execution. The British seem to’ve cleaned their house more thoroughly. He is charged in murder and murder conspiracy. Parliament– chief parli– member Thorpe, who has been (sighs) quite anti-Soviet, but he is not against murder, apparently.

This is the high point of the news. We shall give now other elements of the news that you would fine of interest, we hope– at least we hope you will show interest, because today’s news will be held responsible– if the testing is not thorough, we’ll be responsible for all of today’s news, and so please ready yourself for that fact. And all is bonus news. Won’t be like last evening, we will be giving uh, bonuses to those who answer the questions.

Jesse Jackson, who has been alleged uh, at one time to be receiving pay from the FBI for trying to get Martin Luther King to resign because the ruling class feared him and his progressive stands on labor class unity and civil rights activism and his opposition to the Vietnam war, but it’s now that Jesse Jackson is speaking more straightforward to the point in declaration about human rights that are under the First Amendment in the Constitution. Congress shall make no law abridging the freedom of speech or the press, said Jesse Jackson. That’s the foundation of our free press, an American hallmark unique in the world. There have been many assaults on the press’ freedom, and many of them have come close to cracking that constitutional foundation, but so far fearless, and sometimes hazardous vigilance, has kept the press free. He is not so certain about the future, however, for very few, really, of the man– many millions in America have been interested in the basic freedoms. He is terribly concerned over the passage of Proposition 13, the elimination of job opportunities for minorities, the reactionary decisions of the Supreme Court in the Bakke decision, and other repressive measures such as Senate Bill 1437. I guess now the apologist, who has been always championed for saying all that black people need to do is be good in school and everything will work out, I guess he’s getting likely nervous over the dangers that lurk in USA. He said it’s likely that Watergates in the works now will never be exposed, it is likely that fearful men and women, once at least certain of freedom of the press and their basic freedoms being guaranteed, now see no evil, hear no evil, and for fear of arrest, will certainly speak no evil, said Jesse Jackson, former aide of Martin Luther King, minister in charge of PUSH, a nationwide voluntary effort that had always pushed black capitalism.

New evidence that the universe will collapse. The universe expanding since its birth in a cosmic fireball billions of years ago, will apparently collapse back on itself in about 50 billions years, so no reason for you to worry at this time. Astronomers at Lick Observertory– Observatory believe, they have used a new technique to measure the light output of quasars – q-u-a-s-a-r-s – the most distant energetic objects in the known universe, and announced their conclusions yesterday. They are certain to add to a long-running debate in astronomy over whether the universe will simply expand forever, until every star has burned out, or will eventually slow under the weight of its own gravity, and gather itself again into a single spot of unimaginable heat and density. Until recently, most astronomers felt the universe is open, meaning it would spand forever– it would expand forever. The new evidence, however, which permit– permitted the Lick team to measure the curvature of space as predicted by [Albert] Einstein’s relativity theory, was reported at press conferences held at the University of California at Santa Cruz, which operates Lick. The leader of the effort, astronomer, Jo– E. Joseph Wampler, said I’m con– confident enough in what we’ve done that a lot of people are going to repeat it. I don’t think that we’re going to get an open universe from new observations. He feels the universe is going to intensify and finally blow up in 50 billions years, so nothing, as I said, for you to worry about, just news interest.

Atlantis pyramid looms off Miami coast. News crews 600 feet deep. Films of what appears to be a great coral coverage– uh, covered pyramid submerged in the Bermuda Triangle has raised hopes of a group of undersea explorers that Atlantis may be lying only 45 miles south of Miami. A videotapes of the object filmed two weeks ago under 600 feet of water on the confidential– I mean, on the continental shelf of the Bahamas, was shown here over the nationwide TV-shun­– TV, satellite TV, for the first time yesterday by the explorers who are outfitting another expedition. Scuba divers could not reach the pyramid objects, about 400 feet tall and about 200 feet below the surface, on the first expedition. The explorers are chartering a submarine so that deep sea divers can approach the pyramid on the next trip scheduled to get underway in a couple of months.

The two expeditions were organized by Ari Marshall, a Greek industrialist, and he said Plato, who first described Atlantis, was a Greek. Marshall said at the film showing, I want to– I want a Greek, myself, to be the first to uncover the real Atlantis. However, all those who have sought to go into the Bermuda Triangle, airplanes, ships and others, many, many have disappeared. Perhaps this is (unintelligible word) a degree of underground intelligence, or underwater intelligence, or maybe advanced elements of space does not want man to find some secrets that he does not feel yet that he had evolved to be able to handle. Anyway, the Bermuda Triangle has been the source of many, many disappearances, total disappearances of planes, ships, without a trace.

About 12,000 years ago, great glaciers melted and the oceans rose, Mayoli said, submerging 100,000 square miles of the Bahama land mass. It is not unlikely that the pyramid and other such objects are remnants of an ancient civilization that built on what would have been the shoreline before the waters rose. Atlantis was supposed to be an ancient civilization, highly advanced. Jacques Mayol– M-a-y-o-l – who holds the world’s record for deep diving without scuba gear and who photographed the pyramid with a camera lowered on a cable, has great hope that they will finally find the uh, Atlantis, the civilization that sucked– was sucked into the ocean or was covered by water. [Charles] Berlitz wrote of the pyramid’s discovery in the recently-published Without a Trace, where he documents many ships and researchers who have disappeared by plane or air, so forth and so on. It seems that something very, very strange happens in that part of the world.

A black leader gets the word, silence or else. A South African black leader, one of the new– and few not already in jail, says he has been threatened with life imprisonment if he continues to even give criticism of the white apartheid racist regime. The remark that provoked official wrath – that twilight of a little freedom is over, the lights are dimming, all the lights are going out – for that he faces life imprisonment. Dr. Nthato Motlana – M-o-t-l-a-n-a – a leading spokesman of South Africa’s black majority, said yesterday he was warned because of what he has said last week at a memorial rally, markin– marking the second anniversary of anti-government riots, they killed 618 people. Motlana said he was called to the office of Soweto police chief Brigadier Gen [general] Jann Visser [phonetic] on Saturday and informed that unless I refrain from making the type of statement I made on June 16, and subsequently in uh, middle of July, to wit, my reference to the twilight of freedom, unless I refrain from exciting the young by such words, I will be detained permanently, life in prison. A physician to the black town of Soweto, 15 miles uh, sou– uh, southwest of Johannesburg, Dr. Motlana has become an immensely popular doctor-spokesman about Sa– South African blacks since the detention of most black leaders last year, all black leaders, just like is coming up in the United States, all black leaders are now in jail, every known black leader, for the most part. On today, this morning, the (unintelligible word, could be “bearded”) doctor addressed another rally and lamented the silencing of The Voice, a weekly black newspaper, the final black paper, closed by the government censorship office just this week. The crowd of several thousand persons cheered and chanted as he spoke. Shortly thereafter, he was picked up by the police, and it is not known what his fate will be.

Diet blamed [as] the root of cancer. The director of the National Cancer Institute says it is quite possible as many as half of the cancer deaths in the United States are related to diet and pollution. Between diet and pollution, over three-fourths of all who die of cancer is due to radiation leak, pollution in the air, so forth. We should be so ful– fortunate and glad and thankful for clean air. Dr. Arthur Upton said his agency wants to spend more money researching suspended dietary– suspected dietary links with cancer, but few medical researchers seem interested in taking NCIA’s funds for that purpose, and the government is not interested of course in researching the nation’s health, only giving billions for war, for Rhodesia, South Africa, and so forth. About 580,000 Americans died of cancer last year, Upton said in an interview. More than half of those deaths were related to diet. Medical schools don’t devote enough curriculum to nutrition, Upton said, and there’s a lack of experts to probe such mysteries as a suspected link between a fatty diet and breast, colon, and uterine cancer in this country. Anyway, he goes on to give quite a documentation that diet, filed with carcinogenic foods, all these uh, chemical preservatives – which we don’t have here – cause cancer. One of every four deaths, nearly one out of th– every three now in this U– country called USA is caused by cancer, said Dr. Upton, who took over as the chief of the cancer institute last year. We could improve this research picture on nutrition in a matter of just a few years, if the US government had the will and the interest.

[Howard] Jarvis takes aim at the income tax. Jarvis, who has been known for getting Proposition on California ballot and lo– and winning in the referendum, and getting on 26 other states, is now out to chop away at the income tax, that is, the portion that goes, not to military defense – or should I say, offense – but to those parts that go to maintain the health and welfare, (short laugh) the Social Security, the little bit of Medicaid and MediCal, this man has no hesitancy, not one– one bit whatsoever, in saying that he thinks people who are poor are just lazy, and people who are jobless, it’s because they don’t desire to work.

City of San Francisco trimming its health care age services. Under the crush of Proposition 13’s fiscal realities, city officials have shut the doors on the new admissions at Lagunda Honda home and ordered the closing of five district health centers and four emergency aid stations. Chief Administrative Officer Roger Boas said yesterday that the health cuts, and bold as they were, were designed to reduce health department expenditures by 11 million dollars by the end of this year. Every attempt will be made to minimize the negative effects of any service cutback, but more will come about. Already, several have been placed out of nursing homes, because they cannot pay for them. Patient attrition, usually through death, figures heavily, he hopes, said Boas, in his plan to reduce Laguna’s hospital budget for the agent [agency] from 22.7 million down to a bare 13.4 million, as Mayor [George] Moscone recommended. His recommendations came because of anticipated drops in the property tax revenue with the passage of the dread Jarvis-Gann Proposition 13 initiative. Cutbacks in schools, we know now, no summer schools, school officials, minorities, teachers, all of the CETO [likely, California Educational Theater Organizations] programs, job opportunities, all this is being done in the name of the middle class, the petty boar– bourgeoisie and the bourgeoisie who have little thought for the welfare of the US citizen.

In the most frightening news of the day, US and South Africa negotiate for a nuclear pact. America’s top nu–nuclear negotiator in Pretoria, South Africa, the fascist, racist apartheid state, met today with high government officials for secret talks that covered the possibility of South Africa signing the International Nuclear Treaty, government sources said. However, the hoax is that– that in so doing, South Africa has been provided the neutron bomb and a limited arsenal to be able to protect the small white norit– white minority from the uh, uh– the large black population, which outnumbers whites a dozen or so to one. It’s dreadful. It’s dreadful. The things that go on that no one seems to care about.

Soldier committee counters radioactive gunsight. Rank-and-file GI committees in Germany, in the neo-fascist West Germany, capitalist Germany, have shown signs of heightened activity in recent months, in protest against the inadequate living conditions, the US troop presence, and the neutron bomb that has already been established. They have also participated in petition drives to support military unionization. One of the latest issues is the radioactive promethium gum– gunsight. Members of the (unintelligible name, probably mispronunciation of “Karlsruhe”) Soldiers Committee have in recent weeks circulated leaflets among their fellow US soldiers calling for an investigation into the use of promethium – p-r-o-m-e-t-h-e-u-m – sights on the M-16 rifle. The gunsight recently introduced in Europe contains a glass vial of radioactive promethium 147, which produces a green glow in the dark. When broken, according to German civilian physicists, the hazardous submits– uh, substance emits alpha radiation to all the people and including the soldier firing. US soldiers in the 517th Maintenance Company Armaments section have been forced to repair some 500 of these gunsights from February already to this month, without any protection or any warning of the dangers of radiation to their bodies.

Seattle real estate developser– developers have rediscovered the central city, moving out tenements, moving out the poor, they intied– they have decided to convert the existing housing into high priced condominiums for the middle class and the wealthy, thus encouraging the return of upper c– income professionals back to middle c– Seattle and the city’s (short laugh) poor– (stumbles over words). They have disaster spelled for them, for low and moderate income tenants, only one-half percent of the housing is available in Seattle for them. Some 100 senior citizens, led by Seattle tenants union tried to rally last month in support of a moratorium, that is, a cessation, or an ending on all condominium conversions until the city works out a rational humane proposal to ensure that present residents do not get displaced. The latest protest was the second of the month, but it seemed to go unheard by the city council and the mayor.

Elvis Presley ain’t nothing but a snoop. Throw out those lup– those old Elvis records. According to an F– FBI memo released last week under the Freedom of Information Act, rock star Elvis Presley volunteered to inform for the FBI after visiting the agency’s Washington headquarters on December 31, 1970. M.A. Jones, head of the Crime Records Division, wrote the memo to then-Director J. Edgar Hoover several days after the visit. Jones wrote Hoover that Presley had advised that he wished the director to be aware that he, Presley, from time to time is approached by individuals and groups in and outside of the entertainment business whose motives and goals, he is convinced, are not in the best interest of capitalism and who seek to have him lend his name to their questionable activities. The memo does not specify the nature of the groups or activities. In this regard, the FBI memo continued, he volunteered to make such information available to the bureau on a confidential basis whenever it came to his attention. Oh, this is sad to hear that a man who once had some apparent conscience now doesn’t mind working for the FBI. I didn’t mind while he was alive. No surprises left, are there, no surprises.

We shall continue with the news. After much evidence of parapsychology, the universities of Moscow, and universities of California even, as well as the Soviet Union are starting graduate courses in parapsychology, study of the paranormal. (Pause)

Two hundred thousand dollars tax wasted on private dining room for the big government fat cat bureaucrats in Washington. (Pause) Not surprised. Money for fat cats, none for humans.

Drug firms in the United States trick patients into becoming human guinea pigs. Unscrupulous researchers for (stumbles over words) for prescription drug companies have tricked patients into becoming human guinea pigs by lying to them about the effects of medication. This has come out and been brought to light by Senator Edward M. Kennedy, subcommittee chairman. One of the cases involved a researcher who lied to a group of expectant mothers, revealed Dr. Michael Hensley, medical officer in the FDA – Food Drug Administration – Division of Scientific Investigation. Dr. Hensley said the researchers got the women to try an analgesic without telling them that the drug could cause death or respiratory problems permanently in their newborn babies. Ah, who cares? As long as the doctors, the medical pharmaceutical research can be done, they don’t mind (chuckles) using human beings, particularly in capitalism. They don’t mind at all, using them for guinea pigs. We know that the CIA is experimenting, and now the law– Congress gives them the right to experiment on children in institutions throughout the United States.

Bob Crane, noted actor of Hogan’s Heroes, died in the bizarre murder. He was bludgeoned to death and then choked to death with a cord. His family was left with the painful memory, his seven-year-old son [Robert Scott Crane], with the fact that they were co– there was a Nik– Nikon 35 millimeter camera on a tripod set up in the apartment. He had a photo enlarger and four trays for developing film, disclosed the investigators. A medical investigator for the Maricopa County medical examiner’s office in Phoenix, Arizona. There were also negatives of Crane and women and men, undressed in lewd and lascivious fashion. Nearby they discovered a videotape equipment in a suitcase full of still pictures of the actor and many of his friends in nude poses. Playing off his– in his fame, Crane as able to book one girl– hook one girl after another, said the radio broadcast over Voice of America, with promises and flattery, according to a close friend who explained how the star almost effortlessly could snag women, and I guess men too. Anyway, no one in Hollywood showed up except two of the former cast of Hogan’s Heroes, that was nationwide TV fame. Larry Holvis, Robert C– Clary, Leo [Leon] Askin came in for a little bit, and Carroll O’Connor tried to slip in unnoticed. Anyway, his son said that his dad was a good daddy, my best friend. I’m broken-hearted, said he. Crane never tried to hide his tremendous lust from those around him, said another, but this is a terrible way to die. Murdered by someone who resented, apparently, being used, this widely-famed actor, Bob Crane, a leading hero in Hogan’s Heroes, murdered by bludgeoning and strangulation.

The news can go on and on. There’s never any end to it, but we hope some has been taken to mind.

People fall into types, according to worldwide psychiatric study. How the women dresses attracts different types of men. Rich men prefer the same type of dress, traditionally proper for the occasion, in blue, beige or gray. Pure cotton, woolen and silks scored high. People are very predictable, much like animals, and condition, so I wouldn’t get so romantic, if I were some of you, who still live in the illusions of capitalist romance. Dentists and doctors like high-fashion clothing, preferably with accessories that are status symbols, so they can show their property off, such as designer-signed scarves. Engineers, scientists and accountants appreciate solid colors, preferably blue, pale yellow and beige, but they do not like conflicting lines or busy patterns. The only men who like lavender were engineers and accountants. (Chuckles) People fall into types, uh, uh, seems that– that we just have such a prototype, it’s going to take a long time for the environmental determinism of socialism to change people from the animals with much the same taste, as certain insects for certain foods. That you think that somebody’s out there meant to love you in a romantic capitalist way, and you alone. Conservative businessmen are most attracted to women fashions and men fashions that reflect their own, with classic lines. They don’t like anything gaudy. Corporate men appreciate outfits that are smart looking without being extreme and qualify uh, the uh– the reflections of good moderate tastes. Salesmen are drawn to women wearing good quality clothing. Attorneys showed a preference for suedes and velvets, a touch of luxury. We of course know their bourgeois taste. Police and firefighters wants a woman’s outfit to reflect whatever is appropriate for her station in life. They prefer blue – of course, that’s the uniforms – beige and pastels. Blue collar workers, electricians, plumbers, factory workers, construction workers, tend to be attracted to women dressed in a single color, a well-coordinated outfit. Although these men may grumble about it, they enjoy dressing up and taking their women to dress-up places to show them off, confided the capitalist psychiatrist. They’re show pieces, they’re pieces of property.

Harrowing escape from death. Passengers in a bus plummeted down a mountain 120 miles an hour, and they had to go without brakes, 11,300 feet down to level. They nearly missed two cars, they had to jump from one side of the bus to the other to keep it from careening off the mountain, but the driver made it through. A harrowing experience, only to die, after it was finished, with a heart attack. He was carrying the Western State football team, who of course went on to play their capitalist game without l– little concern for the driver, who had saved their lives.

There’s too much sex on TV, says nation experts, is causing all kinds of sexual maladjustment and perversion. We didn‘t need to be told that. It seems very evident that that’s the case. (Pause)

Do not look into the bright sunlight. It can harm your eyes. Excessively bright sunlight can be harmful to the eye, if you look at it or look at things that reflect it. Like snow, of course, we don’t have that. But you can look directly into the sun, never do. There’re also certain degenerative diseases that can be speeded– speed up– speeded up– accelerated, if you are exposed to a lot of bright light directly all your life, notes Dr. [Brian J.] Curtin, one of the lead– leading medical eye surgeons, director of the Manhattan Eye, Ear and Throat Hospital in New York City, New York.

Princess Caroline of Monaco has upset Princess Grace and the King of Monaco [Rainier III, Prince of Monaco] very much, as she’s run off to a simple island with a commoner and had a simple wedding, a little island in the mid-Pacific. I guess just like the uh, Caroline [Christina] Onassis– Onassis who took the richest wealth in the world and married a humble citizen of the Soviet Union, a ship clerk– (chuckles) a shipping clerk [Sergei Kauzov]. He took on her name, which is possible under Soviet law, and he now controls the Onassis shipping fortune. I’m sure the great capitalist who hated communism, uh, Greek Aristotle Onassis would turn over in his grave, but it would do no good.

I guess that is primarily the major news. A distraught Ted Kennedy, Senator Kennedy, fighting back tears, stormed out of his Washington office in the middle of a TV interview when the question turned to his assassinated brothers [John F. Kennedy and Robert Kennedy]. Kennedy agreed to be interviewed on nutrition programs for the elderly and health and welfare, and guaranteed health insurance, but when asked if he thought about his slain brothers often, his face went white, tears came to his eyes, and he bolted without uttering another word. This, some commentator said, is also fear of discussing it, because he fears that the same people that got his brother will get him.

Lawyers who defended the Red Brigade in Italy have had to take special guards to protect themselves from threats of assassination by the capitalists. That’s of course not called terrorists when capitalists threaten lawyers for doing their jobs.

It is found that the ancient Egyptians and Africans used dental bridges 5000 years ago. Dental bridges aren’t really a modern invention. The Africans were fitting them more than a thousand years before Moses, say top dentists and archaeologists.

This is some of the news. We hope that it has caused some thinking.

Population of the world is jumping at 172 a minute, beyond the capacity to feed itself. Word population is increasing at the rate of over 172 per minute, according to the Environmental Fund, an organized uh, effort dedicated to population stability. At the current rate, the earth’s population increases by 10,320 people every day – every hour, rather – and 247,680 every day. Almost five times the number that die. So you see the trouble the world is in. But of course nuclear war will take care of that.

Frightening link between cancer and atomic power plants, you heard yesterday, go back and study that.

Number of people now going into divorts– divorce courts in the United States are 62 out of every 100, according to this year’s study of 2000 adults. It shows that more than 86 percent are reporting marriage problems so severe that they’re considering divorce. Must be something wrong with capitalist romance. So I wouldn’t envy it, if I were you.

I think that that is the main essence of the news. We hope that uh, the fighting that has been going on in Mozambique is curtailed a little bit. There is no news at this time of any further bombing, the Mozambique citizens, only three years under socialism since their independence, have not done anything to provoke, at least at this time, by defending themselves, an excuse for NATO or USA to enter in.

United League keep marching. Tupelo, Holy– Holly Springs, and now Oklahoma. Sounds like the names of quiet pastoral Southern towns? Nothing could be further from re– reality. Today these Mississippi towns are being rocked with the protest of black members and supporters of the United League, and those protests, say League leader Alfred Robinson, are getting more militant in their fifth month and will continue to press even harder as time progresses, in spite of the arrest of most of their leaders. They’re protesting police brutality and murder that has never been brought to sentence. They are talking about the Ku Klux Klan membership increase that is frightening. The Oklahoma pe– police are now beating up people who are opposed to the Ku Klux Klan. One who did was leaning against police chief’s car. The chief ordered him in Oklahoma city to get off the car, and even when he was told to spread eagle, and Ford was rescued only by two black passerbys. He was later arrested, because the police looked as if they were preparing to beat him to death until they saw there were witnesses present. A black woman factory worker was recently fired with no reason given. A black worker is currently hospital– hospitalized in serious condition since yesterday, after a white co-worker hit her on the head with a hammer. The blow came after the black worker protested the white worker’s spraying paint on her. This happened in uh, Holly Springs, Mississ– Mississippi. Two hours before in Mississippi, 475 people marched in Tupelo. This is just the latest in a series of marches in Tupelo, protesting the racism and brutality of law enforcement people. There have been several mysterious deaths in two-week period in Mississippi of black and people of color. Ninety percent of blacks in the South wouldn’t be in college, if it wasn’t for federal money. They’re also protesting now the Bakke decision, reverse discrimination, where blacks will not now be able to go to school, and will have inferior training schools, if they can afford it, and private schools reserved for only blacks and Indians. Correspondingly, the United League, a ten-year-old black organization, is planning to begin organizing in the four counties immediately surrounding Tupelo, Mississippi and expand Tupelo picket lines. Some 20 percent of the blacks from these counties do their shopping in Tupelo, and once they have been organized to support the boycott, it’s hopeful then Tupelo will be able to set down and negotiate the crimes against the people in Mississippi, particularly more manifest than ever before.

There was a peasant revolt under [Salvador] Allende. The peasant question is central for revolutionary processes in most under-developed countries. In a recently-released book, Agrarian Reform under Allende – Dr. Allende was the socialist elected, non-violent leader of Chile – Kyle Steenland in his book gives a first hand look at the way– at the way in the mobilization of peasants, primarily Mapuche Indians – M-a-p-u-c-h-e – and land redistribution was handled, and handled properly, during the Chile’s popular unity government under the socialist Dr. Allende from 1970–73 until the CIA, with our tax dollars that causes us considerable guilt, cruelly killed him with the seven million dollars that [Henry] Kissingerprovided from our tax money.

The book’s subtitle Peasant Revolt in the South gives a better picture of its content, however. Steenland takes the reader to the Cautin province in Southern Chile and brings to life the pre-revolutionary period as it was experienced in miniature in that region. The principal setting in Lau– Lautaro – L-a-u-t-a-r-o – County, where the Mapuche population was living on a reservation of only marginally productive land, the size of the reservation had gradually dwindled over the years, as the Mapuches were victimized by cheating, brutalizing and stealing on the part of the neighboring large landowners.

Two events happened in 1970 which were to have profound impact on the lives of the Mapuches in Lautaro County. Salvador Allende, Socialist candidate of the leftist Popular Unity coalition, was elected president of Chile, and members of the revolutionary left movement MIR came to the reservations to live with the Mapuches and began to organize the struggle to win back the stolen land. One of the first tactics the MIR organizers proposed, which had been very successful in other parts of rural Chile, was fence-running. Very simply, the peasants got together in the middle of the night and moved the fence dividing– moved the fence dividing the reservations from the neighboring large profit private land holdings, many of them held by US absentee landlorders– land– landowners. The fence was moved about 100 yards into (unintelligible name) Farm, whose owner was a principal figure in the theft of reservation lands– you’ll have to excuse, I’ve been many nights, all night again on the radio, and I have a temperature and a slight chill, so that’s why you may notice some quaver in the voice, but I shall continue to give you the truth, because only the truth can set you free.

Because of the political situation at the time, the consequences of this de facto reclaiming of land was a standoff. The courts refused to rule on the landowners’ complaint. Everybody knew that if Dr. Allende won the election in the fall, the rights of the peasants would be upheld and extended. If the right wing won, there would be a strong backlash. When Allende – Dr. Allende, the socialist – did win, the next step was for the Mapuches to take over (unintelligible name) Farm completely. The struggles and conflicts that ensured are the focus of Steenland’s narrative genius in a simple and reada– readable style. He relates the difficulties of carrying forth a collective process within the farm and portrays the complexities of responding to a growing rightwing fascist offensive while maintaining pressure on the Popular Unity officials to carry through on their campaign promises.

The setting alternate– alternates from the specific farm to the process taking place throughout the region and the country. Relating local events to the larger picture, it is here where the author’s firsthand experience in living and working in the area during the time in question is invaluable in drawing out the larger lessons. And the lessons are many. Just know the commentary, just know this book, that’s important. All commentaries. And the lessons are many. The book is not just an interesting book– or look at the prerevolutionary process which took place in socialist Chile before the military coup, engineered by US capitalism, though, and through the example of Chile, important experiences which have relevance to the questions facing leftists in the USA and elsewhere are very related. Screenland– Steenland present in an insightful way how questions such as the relationship between the party and the masses were approached both by the MIR, uh, with whom the author– author clearly sympathizes as well as by members of other left parties who were given official government (unintelligible word) positions in the truly democratic elected government of Dr. Allende, after his socialist victory.

We also see the difficulties encountering– incorporating women into political activity. The situation with the Mapuche women was especially difficult, given their severe isolation on the reservation, with special efforts made by the MIR organizers, while successful in some cases, point out how deeply entrenched cultural values and traditions cannot be eradicated – that is, erased – overnight, and how their realiz– resolution must be a part of the more general revolutionary process.

Another similar problem was the difficulty– In other words, social reform without work, it takes revolution. Another similar problem was the difficulty which some of even the poorest peasants had in giving up the concept of private property. This was successfully struggled against when the Mapuche at first wanted to divide up the newly-expropriated land into many small individual plots. But it emerges as a collective, cooperative farm, gets underway – like ours – and some of the peasants insist on spending most of their time working their private plots – not like us – or borrowing the collective tools for their own without returning them. The remnants of capitalism, even in the masses, defeated socialism in Chile.

Perhaps most clearly pointed out in the book, as is the case with the entire Chilean experience during the Popular Unity left years, is the limits of reformist policies and programs, the need to guarantee the political independence of the working class and its allies is made evident, and the opposing views put forward by the MIR and some of the Popular Unity parties on, for example, the needs of independent peasant councils is graphically portrayed.

The increasingly violent reaction of the bourgeoisie as the agrarian agricultural reform is carried forward, becomes a more prominent theme, as the book develops. The books ends as did the Allende years, with a bloody military coup, engineered by USA capitalism, and a serious setback for the Popular Unity. Many of the principal figures in the book were slaughtered by the military after being tortured, or their names now appear among the tens of thousands of disappeared political prisoners in Chile that was put in power, the military, by US, our tax dollars.

But the military was not successful in eliminating everyone. Some of the more prominent organizers successfully escaped to the mountains, presumably to later connect with the party– with their party and begin work again in this new stage of class struggle for socialism. Others not so well known are able to survive the initial round-ups, after the military coup brought about by USA tax dollars, and stay in the area. The junta has of course returned all the land to the rich private landlords and the absentee capitalists living in the USA, and the Mapuche are back on their now even smaller reservation, but the political consciousness gained during those years stays with them, and the lessons will not be forgotten.

Thus ends the commentary of Agrarian Reforms under Dr. Allende: Peasant Revolt in the South, written by Kyle Steenland, University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque.

Thus ends the news and commentary. Know it well. Class is tonight. Let us work well, let us produce well, step up time for the hour I gave, we really couldn’t afford it, not at all. But take a half an hour for lunch, show that we care by our work, ‘cause otherwise we have the blood of those that are seeking liberty on our hands, and feel guilt for ever looking back to Babylon, or thinking about America or your own selfishness. There’s no problem that can’t be worked out. And we’re expecting you to do that, cooperatively. Much love. I love you very, very much.

(Tape edit)

 

Part II

Male: Test. (tape edit)

Jones:–you are studying for the socialist classes that we shall be calling just our adult– our community classes, Friday night community classes to all guests, because we will be having guests. (Pause) Remember the absolute urgency of getting everything looking just as nice and neat as possible, speeding up on the road, and getting the bananas planted in every area, around the vegetable stands, and behind the theater pavilion, so that everything will look as lovely as possible. And rehearse to each other in gratitudes, which will keep your healing, your protection, the beauties of this place so you can tell them to others when you’re asked. That’s important. Very important. We need to point out how beautiful a community we have.

Know some of the youth. I would like it worked up, some of the youth in their backgrounds by Ava [Jones] in the counseling department, and have it worked up on where they were, where they are now. That’s a contrast of untold beauty, and we need to have that so that people can hear it here and talk about it to people com– coming through. Youth that were on their way to jail, youth that were destroying themselves by drugs, were going to be killed by gangs or racist elements. Any one of you who have a great testimony of where your life was, meaninglessness, and in despair, shoplifting, the number that were before they got here, will you please write that up and see that it is in to Ava’s department under her head counseling, so that we can talk much of the beauty.

Again I stress, do not label anyone capitalist, don’t be using those terms, don’t be saying you’re a good socialist because that causes people to uh, react negatively when you call them a capitalist or they’re not a socialist. We’ll not use those terms anyway when guests are here, we’ll talk about people in terms of their name and their faults and their wonderful high points, as we see so much beauty and so much growth.

Again remember that we are a nonviolent people. We believe in peace. Don’t even like to kill animals. It’s very difficult for us, but we know that it’s necessary for eating. The beauty of the two children who saved the little fish in the aquarium. Don’t have weapons. Don’t need them. We don’t believe in any form of physical violence, we don’t spank. Obviously, you see we don’t. We don’t hit each other. That’s a community rule. If someone hits one another, then they are deprived of certain privileges or have to take on extra responsibilities.

We do not talk of any of our, (Pause) you know, philosophy in terms of politics. We just believe in cooperative living. We do that certainly with the Guyanese and happily so, but when we are having guests that would be from other places, you never know what they are and who they are. And we certainly are not pro-any one country, not pro-Soviet, not pro-Chinese. Obviously, we are of the conclusion that socialism has to be built, the communal life has to be built by each community or nation unique to its own problems.

We believe in international détente, peace. We would like to see disarmament and destruction of nuclear weapons, and stopping the spreading of those nuclear weapons before they bring the death and hell that everybody’s talking about these days that they will bring. So keep those things in mind.

We do not believe in suicide, we do not of course ever cut people’s hair off. That ridiculousness. We do not have to wear any particular clothes to be disciplined, or hats. We do not get uh, buried in boxes, and we obviously uh, can see all those things, but we need to point out the beauty.

Your home, you– when you’re asked how many are there in your apartment, say, I don’t know just how many. And if in your homes, you– you speak in terms, well, there’re three, five people, no more, whatever number you pick out. And tell we’re building, as you see, on the zone map which should be put out now, 101 new houses, new hospital unit, geriatric section, warehouses, all sort of things. That needs to be gotten out of the radio room and out into the pavilion so people can look to it and see our master plan for building.

Please save everything you can, and think of ways of making money, like Ken Norton did with the lovely chair and the brooms. Everyone that does things like that, you’re helping more than you can possibly know. We need every possible means of making money and saving money. Any other community procedure, please remember it and talk about it very much.

Noon, I’ll give you news coming from Radio Moscow. Earlier you had BBC, Voice of America and uh, Radio Voice of the Netherlands and socialist– uh, social democracy rather, Sweden. Know the difference between a social democracy and a socialist country, because most socialists consider the major dangers to socialism to be social democracy, anarchy, Trotskyism, and revisionism. Be sure you know the news of this day, the commentary, on Chile, how still alive, in spite of the overthrow, as Dr. [Daniel] Ellsberg says, the cruelty, the destructiveness of America that put that military regime in power, some of the good work still lingers on. And Chile is in unrest now, with people remembering those three years of socialist freedom they had, and elected it, and yet they were denied their government by our tax dollars that destroyed the great doctor, medical doctor Allende, and it gives us great pain, if we think about it. We ought to work on our guilt.

Be sure in your test to be prepared to do what you were asked last night, your reflection on yourself. Review the news, the synopsis of the news that I gave last night, preparation for testing. We want to be prepared. We’ll meet in group session, unless otherwise noted. You’ll meet in group session tonight, in your various classes.

Radio Moscow. Yuri Andropopov [Andropov] criticized the opponents of peace. One of the members of the Presidium. Pravda in the strongest terms has denounced Chinese hegemony and imperialism. Eighty-seven bus drivers arrested in Johannesburg, they– ’cause they were black and were trying to get some job opportunities and salary increases– I mean job benefits and salary increases, and the 87 black bus drivers were arrested, held in what is known as detention laws that the USA has even now upheld in its own Supreme Court that can be done there, that you can be held without trial indefinitely. You’re not entitled to a trial. You’re just held in jail indefinitely. That is the case, for instance, with the newsman, [Myron] Farber, from The New York Times, who refused to give over files that might be helpful to the defense of the cruel murder by a medical doctor [Mario Jascalevich] who owns a hospital, who killed five people with curare injections, poisoning them to– to death because they were welfare patients, both black and white, and he wanted the beds for higher-paying guests.

Andropopov pointed out that Washington is making unfriendly acts towards the USSR every day, that China is trying to push Ja– Japan into an anti-Soviet position, and that China, in its doctrine of the Three Worlds, is mistakenly and misguidedly leading the world to nuclear war. As I’ve explained to you, that is China’s doctrine, that nuclear war is inevitable, and so she’s going to get it started and over with, her own prime minister [premier Teng Hsiao-ping] says that it is inevitable, and that they want to get the war finished, very likely, before they feel that nuclear weapons have been spread all over the world, while there are still zones of peace, like in our area here, that will not be damaged by nuclear war and can be rebuilt.

Pravda. Pravda is one of the leading Soviet journals, rebuffs Chinese imperialism in its aspiration for world hegemony (turns from mike to speak to someone) meaning world supremacy, when we say world hegemony. The Chinese accuse the Soviets of that, and (sigh) USA, and the USA accuses (short laugh) the Soviets and the Chinese of this. It means world supremacy. Hardly likely that any nation will have world supremacy these days.

The only company– country in the world, said the– Pravda, that does not apology [apologize] for war. That is (unintelligible word), as I said, again, is their national policy. It’s debatable. It’s a cruel kind of cold calculation and conclusion about the world. Radio Moscow often praises China for its internal socialist developments, its communal life, but they cannot and do not understand their position on trying to pre-empt or start a nuclear war. It has been said that in the fears that’re – are characteristic and quite national– national universally, uh, that at one time the Soviet Union and the USA considered a pre-emptive strike. We know USA did. It openly said, different leaders like Senator Goldwa– [Barry] Goldwater, some years ago, suggested in striking China, and so did Great Britain, with nuclear bombs, blasting out their nuclear capacity before they were able to develop nuclear strategic warheads. But that is too late now. China has them.

The UN Security Council resolution have nothing to do with South African multi-nationals. That is what the UK– UN Security Council suggests. Both resolutions, opposed by the US Western-backed powers, of course.

(unintelligible name, sounds like Shallow) Province. French multinationals in Zaire have been milk– bilking that country and uh, there is an economic dependence on France because they have 500 million dollars US in debt, and so they lean on Zaire and have been utilizing their resources in that former French-controlled area and Belgium-controlled area, the Congo. Zaire, as you know, of recent days has been drawing closer to Angola, even though Mobutu Sese Sekois not in any means a socialist, and a strong-armed dictator, but he has been very, very tired of the policies of having his resources sold at less than the world market, so he worked out an international arrangement to send military uh– train complex, a railway complex to Angola where he can then bargain for the highest prices for his copper, cobalt, uranium and so forth.

Terrorism has been charged (sighs) against the Zimbabwean liberationist. Of course, this is typical propaganda for US imperialism. But they are now also uh, charged– coming before the United Nation by the Zimbabweans against the white Rhodesian regimes of torturing their own uh, fighting force, uh, guerilla group that represents 97 percent of Zimbabwe, and uh, such torture that causes the prisoners to commit suicide to avoid torture. That’s how serious it is. So these charges and countercharges in retaliation go back and forth.

Mozambique is still being besieged by aggression from Union of South Africa with US-backed planes and economic aid, as well as being besieged by bombings from Rhodesia. The bombings are less, and Mozambique is still holding its own bravely.

Be sure to know in the news the commentary on Mozambique, and the history on North and South Korea, as well as the other things that I have mentioned, which are important, particularly Guyana’s position on imperialism and the reunification of Korea. You’ll need to ask for this under the library while you still have time for class.

Terrorism charged the Zimbabwean Liberation Front against their children. Several children were captured by the Rhodesian white army and were tortured and molested, according to their official position paper before the United Nations.

Walvis Bay resolution, Namibian sovereignty is demanded by the Foreign Minister of Soweto, uh, Lesotho. They are demanding that Namibian so– sovereignty be granted and go stronger than the UN resolution. United Nations of course first resolution demanded that the Walvis Bay be returned, that important port, to Namibia in its independence on the sixth of December. The UN vote was uh, however opposed by Czechoslovakia and the Soviet Union because they said it did not give clear indications that Nambia– Namibia would have its own independence and they would be under the dominance– or the domination of the Western imperialist powers.

Eighty-seven black bus drivers arrested for, as I said, demanding better working conditions and a slight increase in salary. It’s against the law to have strikes in uh, South Africa. South Africa used to have more democracy than USA, so it’s a parallel, a kind of a pattern that you can look at and see where USA is going to go, because strikes have been increasingly interrupted and outlawed in USA, when they really took on a serious nature, like the miners strike or the postal authorities and other unions that were– the paper mill, that were able to get something off the ground. But no one allows freedom, when anyone takes that freedom. Uh, freedom is allowed on the surface, and they call the USA democracy, but when people start taking their democratic rights, they’re soon threatened with the army and arrest, martial law and detention, as I said, even in USA now. The Supreme Court’s upheld that you can be detained without trial, as Union of South Africa, that dread white fascist regime, upheld by our tax dollars, has been doing for some time.

The Cuban Youth Festal– Festival had a moment of silence, as over 23,000 have built up at that great rally of all the nations, 140 nations of the world, seeking peace, greatly non-aligned nations, but many socialist nations also involved. They had a moment of silence where there was not one word heard from the twenty-some thousand over the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, in that this is the day on which that happened, that horrible, horrible criminal act happened. It happened, as you know, and has been brought out by Radio Sweden, they dropped the bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki to cause the Japanese people to accept a US uh, surrender, unconditional surrender, even though they at the present time, at that very moment, were negotiating through Switzerland for a peace, but they now admit – even the USA admits – that the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the atomic bombing that destroyed some say from 350,000 up to a half million population, burned to a crisp, and now many, many dying slowly by cancer of the blood and other diseases since that time over 30 years ago. It was done to keep the Soviet Union from moving in to Japan, as they were about to liberate Japan and negotiate, uh, a treaty of uh, surrender with them. And so, rather than have the Soviet Union in the picture, USA bombed Hiroshima and Nagasaki and destroyed all those innocent people without even giving any credence or just ignoring, in fact, their peace overtures that were already in Switzerland, in neutral Switzerland.

That’s a matter of record for the world. You can’t realize that the greatest criminals in the world have been governments, particularly the imperialist and capitalist governments.

Beirut. Six die in fire in that beleaguered city that is still fighting back and forth between Muslim left and the Christian fascist elements, as the city is war torn.

Communist Party support in the Soviet Union has been given for the Yamish [Ramalho Eanes] proposal in Portugal, and the party is uh, warned against uh, protracting uh, anything that could cause a crisis to bring down the Yamish government, which is ostensibly socialist, though it has been bet– bent more and more to dependency on imperialist interest by the International Monetary Fund. But apparently, the Soviet Union sees some chance of saving socialism in Portugal.

The (Pause) resignation is called for of Mr. Thorpe of Britain, as you know, the head of the Liberal Party, outstanding parliamentarian, uh, he has a lordship, Lord Thorpe, he is– uh, it’s highly qualified and is prestigious as anyone could be, he had great likelihood of being the next Home Affairs cabinet minister in coalition government, could’ve been prime minister, one time, he is now charged with murder and conspiracy to murder.

Subjects of the meetings of the Soviet trade lu– leaders in the Crimea. Czechoslovakia, the German Democratic Republic, Hungary, Poland, are meeting in a summit also in cooperation to keep ties of friendship and solidarity. Calling for reduction of tension in arms race and more cooperation, but it has fallen on deaf ears in the United States.

As you know, Sharansky, that USA has made so much concern about his rights as a dissident, they refused, uh, the U– USSR offered to give them Sharansky for a much less popular person that had been held as a political prisoner in the United States. It was refused. The USSR formally offered to exchange these so-called dissidents who had been convicted in Soviet courts of giving uh– governmental secrets to CIA a– in uh, I believe it was Morocco, where they were caught, and uh, yet when offered to exchange them for the Wilmington 10 blacks, they also refused that. So it seems another hypocritical move, all this emphasis on human rights.

It appears that there’s even a policy in USA, which makes no sense at all, to pre-empt a nuclear war. Radio Moscow says that the USA is seemingly very uh, naive in that they have no defense against nuclear war, and the Chinese do. And so does the Soviet Union. So the Soviet Union finds it highly questionable what the USA is doing. Or are the US citizens under the false leadership of the capitalist government there? According to Soviet Union’s Radio Moscow, just unaware and naïve of the consequence of a nuclear war and what it would mean to US cities, the destruction of everything in USA, the elimination of over 200 million lives in the first few minutes of the war. It is inco– It’s an incomparable [incomprehensible], said the USSR, uh, why they’re stepping up their militarist program and NATO program, the arms race.

Trade now is being made a weapon of blackmail, trying to get the Soviet Union to make concessions, which they will not.

Peking trips to various countries acting like imperialists, but the Soviet Union has caught on to their purpose. It is to provoke nuclear war, for whatever reason . Even the USSR admits that that’s what China’s up to, causing damage to the positions of world socialism. But Peking feels that nuclear war is coming, as you know, and so they want to be able to uh, be the people to build on the ashes of it, and uh, thus assure that there will be world socialism after nuclear war. All estimates say that 700 million Chinese would survive a nuclear war, whereas only a handful would survive it in USA.

Peking is denounced for its hegemonic actions in Southeast Asia, uh, especially denounced for its actions against Vietnam. The USA, you know, has rushed nuclear fleets with missiles to what they say protect Southeast Asia from Soviet influence. Every nation has its zone– spheres of influence. USA wouldn’t let a revolution in Mexico or Canada, for instance. It won’t even let nations go in Africa on their own self-determination. Africa does not have one piece of land that’s under Soviet control, or Chinese for that fact. The aid that they receive from both those socialist nations does not put them under an economic tie to those countries. And so obviously, China’s going to have a zone of influence that they would feel necessary to buffer their interest, as well as the Soviet Union has it in the Warsaw Pact, and when Czechoslovakia wanted to go its own revisionist way, they wouldn’t tolerate it, nor Hungary. But the USA is not in any way surrounded by US imperialism– uh, USA rather is not surrounded by any other nation, they’re not bordering the Soviet Union or does China have any possessions close, but the USA has more buffering between them and any other nation, than all the other major powers.

The World Peace Council, 33– thirty-third anniversary of Hiroshima, USSR supports (sighs) uh, the (pause) denouncing of the bombings that’s– (pause) There’re demonstrations all over the world today over the bombs dropped in Hiroshima as a prologue to the future nuclear war. The Soviet Union quotes on Radio Moscow, Dr. Daniel Ellsberg, former Pentagon analyst and State Department coordinator, RAND official, (garbled word)– They quote him extensively on that fact that nuclear war will happen. The match, he said, said Dr. Ellsberg on Radio Moscow as he was carried, picked up from the TV and radio interviews he’d had in USA, the match to start the nuclear war conflagration will be the neutron bomb, the bomb that US has built that destroys property but not people [Editor’s note: As Jones notes below, it is the other way round], showing that they are the most inhumane of all. The only nation that has suggested a neutron bomb. Also, neutron bombs for Africa is reported are available to destroy their concentration camps or their neighborhoods of blacks that are kept outside of the cities, and it is also stated by Radio Moscow that they have had intelligence reports that the USA will turn those neutron bombs on the ghettos, black neighborhoods, Indian neighborhoods, and they can destroy them without any harm to surrounding white neighborhoods, and then be able to move in and pick up the property, because not even a pencil will be moved or a piece of paper, but all human life within the range of a neutron bomb, and they can calculate it within a precise number of square yards, so that would take care of the Fillmore or the Watts or whatever other neighborhood they wanted to use.

Effects and uses of atomic weapons, 90,000 have died of radiation death since Hiroshima and Nagasaki were destroyed. It is now said 380,000, by Moscow Radio, were immediately killed at the time of the blast, and 800,000 were injured in Nagasaki and Hiroshima. That’s quite a loss, one million, one hundred eighty thousand, and then 90,000 more deaths since World War II, which would bring it to over 1,200,000. Staggering to the imagination.

The West is making neutron bombs. They are now proda– producing them, and they’re being deployed, said the USSR, they have evidence, and they strongly condemn this, and will continue to condemn it until a holocaust comes, which they say it will bring about.

Peking policies in Africa. Somali authorities (Pause) are greeting the Chinese visitors. Somalia and China tried to make it a mouthpiece of anti-Soviet propaganda. China is seeking domination over other countries, says Radio Moscow, and of course, China is the ones being getting scathed more because of its policies of whipping up tensions between USA and USSR, but if that’s their picture, that nuclear war is inevitable, I– I– I can understand it. Though I don’t necessarily agree with it, I can understand it. The pretext is economic pressure in Vietnam and in Africa– (Pause) USSR condemns China for cutting off aid– aid and technical assistance to Albania. China severed– severed relations with Vietnam totally and Albania. As you know. They are assisting smaller countries in Africa, says Radio Moscow, and that is good, but these– these international new developments of this Chinese Peoples Republic in whipping up the war fervor is dangerous, and they cannot feel, says the Soviet Union, that it is wise, because the Soviet Union still holds to the position that nuclear war can be avoided. I don’t share that. That would be a point where I disagree with the Soviet Union. I don’t think– I’d best like Dr. Daniel Ellsberg– and the Soviet Union, really, in its radio broadcasting, is more and more talking like there’s no hope to avoid nuclear war, and the fact that they gave so much air time this afternoon, just a few minutes ago to Dr. Daniel Ellsberg, who says nuclear war will come.

Eleventh World Youth Festival, it’s the first time it was ever held outside of Europe in beautiful Habana, Cuba, professional art, fashions, brightest of all festivals that’ve ever been. A hundred and forty-five nations from all continents have agreed on peace and disarmament, condemning US CIA for weather modification, condemning social injustice caused by the USA in Africa, condemning the imperialist pow– policies of the USA. There was no condemnation in the world festival against China, but they did represent concern over China’s international policies that could very easily lead to nuclear war. Main issue: imperialism. It violates world peace and tranquility. The tribunal of the 145 nations present in Habana will be me– gathering and meeting regularly because of the dangers of nuclear war, to try to get across to the world what will happen to humanity in case of an imperialist war.

This is the updating of the news. You have other news now, you can go back and uh, get that. Know the commentaries, as I said, it’s important that you do know the commentaries.

Abortion foes have been plotting tactics in St. Louis and uh, targeting progressive social movements for violence, as the source of breakdown in US society, the rightwing National
Right to Life Committee, NRLC, has invoked the battle cries of the abolition and antiwar and civil rights movements to embellish a progressive-sounding image at its national conference. The clash between (turns head from mike to cough) anti-abortion forces and the pre– the pro-choice movement continued. Meanwhile in courts, state legislatures, and at abortion clinics themselves with a number of significant develops– developments in the abortion struggle. More states are passing legislation against abortion. A lot of unwanted children, but they’re all so [could be “also”] dangerous with abortion. It’s a loaded question. One has to realize that uh, (Pause) if you can kill life before it’s born, some could easily step that up to destroy life if it’s undesired, if it’s the wrong race, and ba– wrong class, even after they’re born.

FBI has pushed Klan violence, admitted by Washington Post. It has been a matter of record, now, that the FBI was involved and participated in Ku Klux Klan violence, said The Washington Post.

The postal walkers– workers were forced back to work because of their walkout strike threatening of army intervention. It was decided that it was illegal for them to strike, yet some 3000 postal service employees uh, from the northeast converged on Washington, D.C., threatening to do just that, till the army told them they’d be arrested if they did not go back to work. They were chanting, no contract, no work. They promised a walkout, but the army threatened arrest of all of them, and so if US (short laugh) can’t be seen for what it is– hypocritical, supposed to be right to strike, but not so. Postal workers had claimed that they had currently unproductive contract negotiations that had not borne any fruit for several years, to give needs to people in a hi– horribly, horribly inflationary envir– uh, environment where they do not– just do not have enough money to pay their bills from the wages they receive.

Whose son is going to be shot next? That’s how the demonstrators related the day-to-day reality of Texas injustice, as some 700 Hispanics strode several miles in the hundred and fourteen degree heat, to a rally in Plainview against police murders that are rampant throughout the state of Texas. Yesterday President Carter showed us how little we meant to him, Ruben Sandoval, a San Antonio lawyer emphasized to the crowd. I want you to remember yesterday, I want you to say to him, Mr. President, I am a 12-year-old child with my hands cuffed behind my back, and I have been assassinated. Sandoval’s comments and the demonstration in front of a Hale County courthouse came in response to the Justice Department’s announcement of last week that the federal government refused to step in and prosecute the Dallas police, the leader of the conspiracy, Dallas sergeant, Darryl Cain, on civil rights charges for the murders of several, including a youngster of 12 years of age, Santos Rodriguez. Five years ago, Rodriguez, 12, sat in a Dallas cop car as Cain slapped a 357 Magnum to his head, playing games by spinning the revolver cylinder to scare the youngster. The 12-year-old Chicano died of a bullet that left a hole the size of a half dollar through his head. A Texas court convicted the (unintelligible word) of murder, but he got a very mild sentence.

The Rodriguez case has outraged the Hispanic community, who are more organized and resisting fascist tyranny in USA than any other community, black or the Indian. In a bid for the votes of the significant Hispanic electorate, the Chicano electorate, President Carter met with Hispanic leaders in Houston last month. The community leaders showed the president color photos of Rodriguez and urged Carter to force the Justice Department to intervene by prosecuting a new trial. He only got a one-year sentence for murder. It was open, blatant murder of this police sergeant, when he murdered this little 12-year-old, brown-skinned Chicano lad. Carter promised that the case would be reviewed, but his words were again double-edged and a lie. The federal government’s answer came last week. A Justice Department spokeperson– spokesperson said the federal government will not reopen the case, since Cain is currently serving his one-year sentence for the first-degree murder and because Texas originally prosecuted the case vigorously. Now did you ever hear of a first-degree murder only getting one to five years? Impossible. Impossible. It’s supposed to be life imprisonment, or death– death. Texas has the death penalty.

The Justice Department refusal prompted the Texas Brown Berets to organize the Plainview demonstration. Other groups participating were the Texas Farmworkers Union and the League of United Latin American Citizens and the La Raza Unida Party. Commenting on the federal government’s refusal to step into the Rodriguez case and other cases of police murder and brutality, TFW spokesperson Roy Fernandez told the news – which was only represented by the alternate left press – that the federal government seems to intervene only in blatant cases of injustice when it fears that leaving state verdicts stand would lead to mass protest or lose votes for some crooked politician. They want to make people think that there’s nothing to worry about because the federal government is getting in on this, Fernandez explained. But we’re just getting tired of our people getting shot up in the name of the law, murder committed against them. Every time we turn around, our people are getting shot, murdered by the authorities, and nothing is being done.

Demonstrators demand justice. The demonstrators, many converging on Plainview in car caravans from Houston, San Antonio and Dallas – that ought to speak to those who think they’d like to go to Texas or any other place – came in part to demand federal intervention in the latest instance of police murder. Timothy Rosales, 25, was shot and killed last month in a town near Plainview in what was described by– by police as a scuffle with a Hale County deputy sheriff. Witnesses say that the sheriffs killed him in cold blood, that he was doing nothing but just looking at them. On July 14, a local grand jury declined to indict the cops– not even indict them, for cold-blooded murder. The Justice Department is once again they say studying the case. Oh, yes.

Carter’s got a lot of nerve complaining about human rights in Russia, when here in this valley, it’s like another world of fascist oppression, Fernandez observed in disbelief. It’s a case of cleaning up your own backyard first.

There may not be that many demonstrators, but at least the Hispanics, the Chicanos are condemning the violence. The Hispanics called on blacks and Indians to do the same, because just as many blacks are shot down in cold blood, but for some reason, blacks are afraid or too apathetic to organize and demonstrate in Texas at this time.

Philadelphia anti-cop vigil marks 1977 murder. More than a hundred mostly Puerto Rican demonstrators gathered outside Philadelphia’s police headquarters yesterday to mark the first anniversary of the cop killing of Jose Reyes. The all-night vigil demanded that criminal charges be brought against the officer, Gerald Salerno, and that he had fired from the police department– and that he be fired from the police department for the murder of this young man. Salerno shot and killed Reyes, a 28-year-old Puerto Rican father of six children last July outside his home. His murder prompted widespread protest in the Puerto Rican and progressive communities. It resulted in the summer-long occupation of the Puerto Rican community by local cops in a police state manner and spotlighted the extraordinary level of police brutality exhibited by Puerto Rican cops against blacks, Puerto Ricans and working class whites. They’re making an open uh, uh, appeal, the Puerto Ricans are, for solidarity of blacks, Puerto Ricans and working class whites, who they claim are the victims of Uncle Tom Puerto Ricans and mostly white r– racist police. Again it was an action of killing in cold blood. The July 14 action was sponsored by the Puerto Rican Action Committee. It followed a vigil on the murder site, sponsored by a group of local community leaders. Some blacks were involved in that.

Well, (sighs) you have so much racism, I couldn’t tell you all about the racist murders. It is estimated by the Chicago NAACP that there have been as high as 1500 murders by police in cold blood in the major cities of USA since the beginning of this year. That’s quite a number of people, quite a number of people, indeed.

Iraq denies USSR strain. Iraq has refuted recent reports that it might be breaking with the Soviet Union. If Iraq criticizes the policies of a friendly country, it should not be judged that this is the beginning of change in relations, Iraqi President Saddam Hussein, told a Newsweek correspondent in an interview here yesterday. The Iraqi leader also denied that the government was establishing a Persian Gulf defense arrangement with Iran and Saudi Arabia, as has been reported in the Western capitalist press recently. But there is very strong likelihood that that’s the case. That’s why the capitalists are shooting them, driving them out of their countries, expelling Iraqi officials, because Iraqis are getting a strong influence with the Persian Gulf Defense Arrangement with Iran and Saudi Arabia, uh, to become self-determined– termination wise in terms of building their own weapons and refining their own oil, to not be dependent upon USA. And it isn’t an anti-Soviet move. Several news reports had indicated that Iraqi [Iraq] was about to moved away from the Soviet Union. Iraq is the only Arab country that has a very strong working friendship treaty with the Soviet Union.

One indication of such a possibility had been Iraq’s switch from the Soviet Union to the Arab countries as a source of building arms. According to Hussein, the arms trade though with West Germany and the Arab countries, Belgium and Italy, was to affirm Iraq’s non-aligned status and to limit dependence on any one supplier. He warned that Iraq’s dealings with the West had absolutely nothing in common with Egypt when it changed arms suppliers. Iraqi is strongly condemnatory of Egypt, an ally of USA. In reference to President [Anwar] Sadat’s break with the Soviet Union in 1972, and Egypt’s subsequent closer alliance with the West, Iraqi president said this will not be the case with Iraq.

Both the USA and Soviet Union were active in world affairs to serve their own interest. The US is main– maintaining a bourgeoisie system, and the Soviet Union is spreading communism. Of course, said Hussein. The Hussein government is a nationalistic government, Iraq, but it is in a military alliance of the Soviet Union. And Hussein said that he feels that the Arab nations are going to have to have their own alliance to be able to not be imposed upon and uh, oppressed by USA imperialism. He is the one that’s pushing so hard for oil price increases, independence of their oil interest of the Arabs, so they can de– refine their own oil, and uh, go off the US dollar system, and on gold.

In this superpower tangle uh, for hegemony, Iraq was only trying to insure the Arab world was not turned into a East-West battlefield, the Iraqi leader explained. Recently Iraq had disagreed with the Soviet Union over the latter’s recognition of the right of the state of Israel to exist. That is the major issue between Iraqi. The Soviet Union has agreed that Isra– Israel must exist, ‘cause they know that they have nuclear weapons and the Soviet Union is obviously trying to avoid nuclear war. China has on the other hand said, Israel does not have the right to exist. That’s the difference between China and Soviet Union policy. China’s very strongly pro-Arab.

Bog– Ba– Bagdad ha– Iraq had also denied Moscow use of its airfields to supply military material to the Ethio– Ethiopian socialist military government in its war in the Ogaden, because Somalia was and is our friend, said Hussein. There were also reports that Iraqi authorities had asked the Soviet Embassy in Bagdad to move away from the presidential palace, but that was later proven wrong.

And Iraqi executed 21 (pause) officers for what they called a coup attempting to bring them as a– into being a Soviet satellite. These– This uh– These executions were done despite pleas from the Soviet and Eastern Europe diplomats. The executed pro-Soviets were charged with subversion. Nationalism, my friend, nationalism. There– But Iraq, according to BBC, is even more strongly anti-USA, its just strongly pro-Arab, and it’s falling uh, out, even though they’re still in the alliance, is over USA and USSR’s recognition that Israel has the right to exist.

Well, naturally, you can’t do away with Israel, but China feels that Israel and Palestine should develop a new nation, unified, and drop the Jewish state, the religious uh, control of the Zionist, and make it a multi-party, multi-ethnic group state of Palestine. That’s the difference between Chinese policy, USA policy, and USSR. It’s very, very complicated. But you have to realize that socialism is superior to capitalism in the terms of what it does for its masses in free medicine and guaranteed housing, low wages– low rent, rather, guaranteed employment and the fact that it takes care of its citizenry in the upcoming nuclear war, they have underground shelters, whereas capitalism has nothing. There is obviously very little racism in China or the Soviet Union or other socialist countries, but nationalism, a long history of distrust before socialist revolutions that came about by nations uh, the sense of uh, national pride is a great threat and barrier to world peace. And there’s no use to deny that it exists, because it does, and that is probably the most certain reason, the most absolute reason that would indicate that there will be, indeed, will be a nuclear war.

Puerto Ricans are organizing against statehood as the main danger. Puerto Rico’s largest and in– most influential political party, outside of the establishment party, Puerto Rican Socialist Party, PSP, has virtually committed itself to a strategy based on the thesis that statehood for the nation colony has become the main danger to the future of the nation in a place where there is nearly 40 percent unemployment and gross poverty and malnutrition. They accuse US government administrators of being guilty of the most blatant racism. Based on this concept, the Peoples Socialist Party, the Puerto Rican Socialist Party general secretary Juan Mari Brás has called for the formation of an anti-annexationist front of all Puerto Rican groups and individuals opposed to statehood. He’s indicated that the PSP would be prepared to support an anti-statehood candidate in the island’s 1980 governor– gubernatorial elections, even if the candidate were not in favor of independence. They want to avoid statehood at all costs.

How sound is the analysis? Is statehood for Puerto Rico really just around the corner? Or is the PSP overreacting to what after all would amount only to a change in the legal status of Puerto Rico? Is the anti– anti-a– annexationist front the correct answer to the threat of statehood? Wouldn’t such a front strengthen the hand of those who support the present colonial commonwealth status and subordinate the struggle for independence to a political maneuver? There are some of the questions currently being debated in Puerto Rico and the USA by those most intimately concerned with the future of the Puerto Rican independence movement.

First it must be said that one reason why independence forces view statehood with such alarm is that, legally speaking and in terms of international law, Puerto Rico as a state in the United States would then become an internal affair of the US a– gov– US imperialist government. The independence movement would then become by definition a subversive secessionist movement, like in Quebec, where they established martial law some time ago, Prime Minister [Pierre] Trudeau did, and jailed them, just for proclaiming their desire for independence.

A considerable measure of international support could be expected to fall away. With all the remaining legal barriers down, Puerto Ricans see their country become another Hawaii, dominated by petrochemical companies and other capital intensive monopoly capitalist industries, real estate interests, tourism, and retirees– prejudiced retirees from the mainland, with Puerto Ricans in time becoming a minority in their own beloved country.

In effect, the PSP is saying that the move towards statehood must be stopped at all cost, particularly since statehood, unlike the present commonwealth status, is politically irreversible. That is, of course, a danger. There is little doubt that US imperialism is giving more active consideration to statehood as a legal alternative to maintain their control, making them uh, the fifty-first state to the present commonwealth status than it ever has before. The electoral victory of the pro-statehood New Progressive Party in the 1976 elections had certainly given pro-statehood forces an enhanced standing in Puerto Rico’s p– political life. Ex-President Gerald Ford’s endorsement of statehood shortly thereafter, followed by Jin– President Jimmy Carter’s statement that he would support statehood if Puerto Ricans voted for it, is further evidence of Washington’s imperialist interest in the statehood option.

Nevertheless, statehood is not necessarily Washington’s first option. From a legal point of view, US corporations presently operating in Puerto Rico might not be able to maintain the present preferential capitalist tax treatment they have received from the colonial government. Existing federal regulations, such as the minimum wage law, won by the US working class over decades of struggle, would have to be extended to Puerto Rico, if it were to become a state, and the US government does not want them to have minimum wages guarantees. The same would apply to other social legislation, including whatever limited forms of environmental regulation now prevailing in the fifty states, as limited as they are. At the same time, the federal government would have to assume responsibility for certain forms of social welfare, an obligation which would probably require greater expenditures by far than at present.

Racism, national chauvism– chauvinism, and simple old-fashioned political nose-counting can also be expected to fuel a strong rightwing opposition from the USA to any statehood proposal. Given its colonial status, Puerto Rico’s population is considerably to the left politically as compared to the [mispronounces] electorate of any USA state. As a state, Puerto Rico would be entitled to two Senators and seven Representatives in Congress, as well as more electoral votes than half the states. The political tilt of such representation would undoubtedly be liberal progressive left, at the least, hardly encouraging conservative-dominated state legislatures to approve statehood. On the other hand, Democrats might see statehood as a political plus, and support it for that political selfish reason.

But the biggest obstacle in statehood to the Puerto Rican people, the working class in particular. Despite the PNP’s 1976 election triumph, there is little evidence indicating that the masses who voted for the party were in any way endorsing statehood. Rather, they were protesting the deepening economic crisis of the island and the complete inadequacy of the dominant pro-commonwealth Popular Democrat Party. It’s a colonialist, rightwing g– party. In short, the vote was a protest against the PDP and not an expression of support for the Peoples uh, National Progressive Party, which is more liberal, uh, it wasn’t supporting its statehood proposals.

This is a little background on Puerto Rico, which is uh, going to be the source of a lot of independence and class struggle efforts in the days to come.

Thus ends the news and commentary for the afternoon. Know these commentaries, particularly on Puerto Rico and things of that nature. Take note of the harsh racism that’s uh, happening throughout the USA.

Remember, classes is– they’ll be held in group session unless otherwise notified.

Now the other news of the earlier morning will be given. Please take note of the news. Be prepared for the requirements I have given you over and over again for testing evaluation.

Thank you. I love you very much.

 

 

 

Originally posted on June 26th, 2019.

Skip to main content